Psy 237

Created by pickering07 

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which of the following is the best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake

eat well balanced meals with a variety of foods.

by the age of 6, the rigidity characteristic of the just right stage of developement tends to fade. t/f

true

which of the following substances has been shown to reduce intelligence and increase behavoir problems in young children

lead

growth and developement in which area of the brain most direclty aids memory

hippocampus

jake father is taking him to the barber for his first real haircut. at first jake is excited about his first trip to the barber, but as soon as the barber makes the first cut in his hair, he becomes very upset and tells his father to make the barber stop. in spite of his fathers efforts to assure jake that his hair will grow backe, jake is exhibiting the Piagetian concept of

Irreversibility

jayson understands 4+6=10 but does not understand that 10-6=4. jayson is displaying

irreversibility

pete helps his 2 year old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. pete is providing

scaffolding

language to advance thinking through...

social mediation

one underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is

neurolgical maturation

overregularization is actually a sign of verbal sophistication t/f

true

while neglect is harmful to a child, it is not as damaging as physical abuse t/f

false

to assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in

static reasoning

authoritarian parents welcome their childrens opinions and are sensitive to their feelings t/f

false

an angry 5 year old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed

emotional regulation

when alone, however, jasmina rarely plays. her motivation to play the piano...

is most likely extrinsic

the presence of imaginary friends positvely correlates with an increase in..

intiative

sara, molly, and shy are playing dress-up. they are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. what type of play are the three girls engaging in

sociodramatic play

james and lila are parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children. they are exhibiting the:

authoritative pattern of parenting

four year old bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. most likely, as he grows older:

he will become aggresive himself

one of the most important ways in which children learn to control their aggression is through

play

which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children

mastary of gross and fine motor skills

Kayla is 4 year old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more effiently. this developement may be attributed to

growth of the corpus callosum

the increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience

frightening nightmares

realla understands that if she had 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. however she does not know what happens if she had 6 and we take away2. piaget would say that raella

had demonstrated irreversible thinking

when a young child asks why what kind of information is the child most likely seeking

they want to know how the situationn or behavoir will affect them.

children with autism have been shown to be impaired in theory of mind t/f

true

a young child will have the most difficult time understanding words which

express the relationships of place and time

public health experts recognize that while injuries to children occur, their effects may be minimized through

injury control

to assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in

static reasoning

according to erikson whcih of the following aids young children in demonstrating initiative

****

compared with other cultures, north american families of preschool children..

use the discipline technique of time out most often to deal with a childs misbehavoir

the presence of imaginary friends positively correlates with an increase in

intiative

children who lack self control are most likely to have parents who are

permissive

one of the worst effects of the media on children is

*****

impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that theyboth represent

an underdeveloped prefontal coretex

A good magician must get the audience to focus on one aspect of his or her demonstration while manipulating another. this is most easy with preoperational as they are easily fooled with their tendency to

demonstrate centration

whereas piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to

socail activities quided by others

one factor that strenthens theroy of mind at about age 4 is

having an older sibling

the most common cause of death of children worldwide is

accidents

young children typically have low self asteem since they compare their abilities with those of peers t/f

false

psychological control as a means of discipline relies on which of the following

a childs feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents

a play that mimics aggression through chasing or hitting but is not intended to harm is called

rough and tumble play

among the majority of us families adolescents who are successful generous individuals are from

authoritative homes

in us how many hours per day does the typical child ages 2 to 4 spend watching tv

****

of the different types of aggression the most destructive and threatening is

bulling aggression

a cross sequential design

followstowor more groups whoare of different ages over a period of time

a father want his son to help his mother wash the dishes every night. according to social learning theory,the father should

help out with the dishes himself

a manner of studying human developement that takes into account phases of life is referred to as the

life span perspective

an exampleof a behavoir by a reseacher that would be considered unethical is

changing data to support the hypothesis

an individuals socioeconomic status includes

levels of education

aresearcher was interested in whether watching violence affected childrens behavoirs. to examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. following the films, the behavoirs of the 2 groups werwe compared . this study was an

expirement

cognitive theories emphasize the

developement of thought processes and their effect on behavoir attitudes and beliefs

color blindness is more common among males cuz m

most color blindness is inherited through a recessive gene on the X chromosome

____ refersto the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individuals or species genetic inheritance

Epigenetics

Eriksons theory involves developemental crises that involve 2 opposite outcomes, but most people end up somewhere in the middle t/f

true

every normal human body cell, except for gametes and red blood cells, contain how many chromosomes

23 pairs

external sex organs are fully formed by

the 12th week after conception

if a researcher wanted to stuudy the developement of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of 2nd graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade, this is an example of

longitudinal research

if you find a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that

high attendance and high grades to occur together

implantation begins approx. how long after conception

10 days

in a normal birth, the action to trigger labor is initiated by the

fetal brain

in classical conditioning an organism learns

to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one

in many cultures around the world, people believe that is is the husbands responsibility to earn the majorityof the income for the family this is an example of

social construction

in operant conditioning, an organism learns that a

paticular behavoir usually produces a particular consequence

in order to prevent a researchers bias from interfering with ethical data collection and reporting, which of the followin is an important part of the research process

providing details of the study which will allow for replication

interviewing all the siblings for a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions would be an example of

qualitative data collections

low birth weight babies are more likely to become adults who are

overwieght

marsha has twins,a boy and a girl. the twins are

dizygotic

molecules of DNA are called

chromosomes

monozygotic twins

even thouht they begin with identical genotypes their phenotypes may differ at birth

most zygotes with serious chromosomal problems

do not begin to develope or are aborted spontaneously

one difference between sperm cells and ova is tha

ova carr an X chromosome whereas sperm carry either X or Y chromosome

one disadvantage of cross sectional research is that differences could be dut to cohort rather than developement t/f

true

pam attended her 20th high school reunion and had a wonderful time dancing the old dances and singing the old songs. according to multicontextual characteristics of development, her enjoyment may be attributed to

cohort effect

phenotype refers to

the actual expression of genetic tratis

recessive X linked genes are more

likely to be expressed in a mans phenotype

saul and joe are unrelated next door neighbors. what percentage of the human genome do they share

99.5

sperm and ova are called

gametes

the chromosomal make up of a normal male is

XY

the chromosomal makeup of a normal femle is

XY

the critical factor in attaining the age of viability

is having adequate brain developement

the fetus begins to develope male sex organs i

if the SRY gene on the Y chromosome commands the sex organ to develope

the final step in scientific method is to

report the results

the first hours and days of human development involove the process of

duplication,division,and differentiation

the 5 characteristics that are evaluated in the APGAR are

heart rate,breathing, muscle tone, color and reflexes.

the head begins to take shape in the

fourth week

the idea that the study of developement involves several academic fields defines the ----- characteristic of developement

multidiciplinary

the main advantage of observaton is that the scientist can make determinations about the cause and effect t/f

false

the more hank eats, the less hungry he feels. the correlation that exists between his food intake and his hunger is

negative

the nuerual tube will become the

brain and spinal cord.

Apagar test

heart rate, breathing muscletone, color, reflex

cross sectional research

quickest and least expensive way to study developement

biosocial congnitive and phsychosocial

3 types of domains of human developemnet

how and why people change across a life span

the science of human developement best be described

Operant Conditioning

is the process by which a response is gradually learned through reinforcement or punishment

Reinforcement

is the process by which a particular action is followed by something desired, which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action.

Social learning theory

an extensionof behavorism, emphasizes that people often learn new behavoris through observation and imitation of other people

CognitiveTheory

emphasizes that the way people think and understand the world shpaes their attitudes, beliefs, and behavoirs.

Ecological systems approach

to develope mental research takes into consideration the interrelationship between systems within the person and the environment

Dynamic systems theory

views human development as in a constant state of flux and as the product of the interaction between systems within the person and the environment.

Scientific Observation

is the unobtrusive watching and recording of participants behavoir in a systmatic and objective manner. either in the laboratory or in a natural setting.

Experiment

is the research method designed to untangle cuase from effect by manipulating one variable to observe the effect on another variable.

Independent variable

is the variable that is manipulated in an experiment to observe what effect it has on the dependent variable.

Dependent variable

is the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation is added in an experiment. new drug on memory particpants memory is the dependent

Survey

is the research method in which information is collected from a large number of people, either through written questionnaires, personal interviews, or some other means.

cross sectional research

groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics are compared with reard to the variable under investigation

logitudinal research

follows a group of people of different ages over time. thus combining the strengths of the cross sectional and longitudinal methods.

correlation

is a number indicating the degree of relationdship between tow variables, such that one is likely to occur when the other occurs or one is likely to increase or decrease when the other increases or decreases

Quantitative research

expressed in numbers

qualitatitve research

collects non numerical descriptions of participants characteristics behavoir and ideas

Science of human development

seeks to understand how and why all people, everywhere change or remain same over time

Scientific Method

is a way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data based conclusions. The five basic steps are- pose a research question, develop a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, report results which allows replication

Replication-

means to repeat a test of a research hypothesis and to try to obtain the same results using different participants.

Nature

refers to all the traits that a person inherits from his or her parents.

Nurture

refers to all the environmental influences that affect development

Critical Period

a time when a particular type of development must occur

Sensitive Period

- is a time when a particular type of development happens most easily

Difference-Equals-Deficit Error

is the false belief that deviations from average development are always inferior.

Life span Perspective-

approaches human development by taking into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood.

Cohort-

is a group of people who because they were born within a few years of each other. Experience many of the same historical changes.

Socioeconomic Status-

is determined by his or her income, wealth, eduction, place of residence and occupation

Ethnic Group-

is a collection of people whose ancestors were born in the same region, often sharing a language, culture, and religion

Social Construction-

is an idea that is based on shared perceptions, not on objective reality

Epigenetic refers

to the effects of environmental forces on how genes are expressed.

Mirror Neurons

- are cells in a person's brain that respond to the observed actions of others in the same way they would if the observer had done that action

Developmental theory-

is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older

Psychoanalytic theory

- interprets human development in forms of inner drives and motives, many of which are irrational and unconscious.

Behaviorism

- studies observable behavior, it is also called learning theory because it describes that laws and processes by which behavior is learned.

Conditioning-

is the learning process that occurs either through the association of two stimuli (classical Conditioning) or through the use of positive or negative reinforcement or punishment (operant conditioning)

Classical conditioning-

is the learning processes by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful one so that both are responded to in the same way

DNA

is the molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins.

Chromosomes

are molecules of DNA that conatin genes organized in precise sequences. each cell contains 46 chromosomes 23pairs

Gamates

are the human reproductive cells

Zygote

is the single cell formed during conception by the fusing of two gamates a sperm and an ova

Genes

are segments of a chromosome which is a DNA molecule, they are basic units for the transmission of hereditary instructions

genotypes

the total of all the genes a person inherits his or her genetic potential

Allele

is one of the normal versions of a gene that has several possible sequences of base pairs

genome

is the full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of certain species

Monozygotic

developes from one(fertilized egg) zygote that splits apart,producing genetically identical zygotes,

Dizygotic twins

developes from 2 separate ova fertilized by different sperm at roughly the same time, and therefore are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings, fraternal twins

XX

is the 23rd chromosome pair that in humans determines that the developing fetus will be female

XY

is the 23rd chromosome pair that in humans determines that the developing fetus will be male

polygenic

most human traits; they are affected by many genes.

multifactorial

most human triats are that is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors.

additive genes

the phenotype reflects the sum of the contributionsof all the alleles invovled. The allesles affecting height for example, interact in this fashion

dominant recessive pattern

is the interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of the dominate gene more thanthat of the recessive gene.

Carrier of that gene

a person who has a recessive gene that is not expressedin his or her phenotype but than can be passed onto the person offspring

Heritability

is a stastic that refers to the percentage of variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era that can be traced to genes.

Down Syndrome

is the most common extra chromosome condition. people with down syndrome age faster than others often have unusaual facial features and heart abnormilites and invarialby develope Alzheimers disease

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