(n.) An abbreviated synopsis of a longer work of scholarship or research. (adj.) Dealing with or tending to deal with a subject apart from a particular or specific instance.
Directed to or appealing to feelings or prejudices instead of to intellect or reason.
A saying or proverb containing a truth based on experience and often couched in metaphorical language.
A story in which a second meaning is to be read beneath the surface.
The repetition of one or more initial consonants in a group of words or lines in a poem.
A reference to a person, place, or event meant to create an effect or enhance the meaning of an idea.
A vagueness of meaning; a conscious lack of clarity meant to evoke multiple meanings or interpretations.
A person, scene, event or other element that fails to correspond with the appropriate time or era.
A comparison that points out similarities between two dissimilar things; a passage that points out several similarities between two unlike things is called an extended analogy.
A brief explanation, summary, or evaluation of a text or work of literature.
A brief explanation, summary, or evaluation of a text or work of literature.
A character or force in a work of literature that, by opposing the protagonist, produces tension or conflict.
A word to which a pronoun refers.
A rhetorical opposition or contrast of ideas by means of a grammatical arrangement of words, clauses, or sentences.
A short, pithy statement of a generally accepted truth or sentiment.
In contrast to Bionysian, it refers to the most noble, godlike qualities of human nature and behavior.
A locution that addresses a person or personified thing not present.
(adj.) Characterized by clever or sly humor, often saucy, playful, and somewhat irreverent.
An abstract or ideal conception of a type; a perfectly typical example; an original model or form.
The repetition of two or more vowel sounds in a group of words in prose or poetry.
A poet; in olden times, a performer who told heroic stories to musical accompaniment.
Insincere or overdone sentimentality.
A French term for the world of books, criticism, and literature in general.
A list of works cited or otherwise relevant to a particular subject.
Inflated, pretentious language.
A work of literature meant to ridicule a subject; a grotesque imitation.
Grating, inharmonious sounds.
The works considered the most important in a national literature or period; works widely read and studied.
A grotesque or exaggerated likeness of striking qualities in persons and things.
Literally, "seize the day"; "enjoy life while you can," a common theme in life and literature.
Literally, "talking around" a subject; i.e., discourse that avoids direct reference to a subject.
A highly regarded work of literature or other art form that has withstood the test of time.
Deriving from the orderly qualities of ancient Greek and Roman culture; implies formality, objectivity, simplicity, and restraint.
A structural element of a sentence, consisting of a grammatical subject and a predicate.
sometimes called main clauses, ay stand on their own as complete sentences
are used as nouns or modifiers, are incomplete sentences and cannot stand alone grammatically; they are sometimes called subordinate clauses; those that function as adjectives, nouns, or adverbs are known, respectively, as adjective, noun, and adverbial clauses
The high point, or turning point, of a story or play.
comparison and contrast
A mode of discourse in which two or more things are compared and contrasted. Comparison often refers to similarities, contrast to differences.
A witty or ingenious thought; a diverting or highly fanciful idea, often stated in figurative language.
A highly specific, particular, often real, actual, or tangible detail; the opposite of abstract.
The suggested or implied meaning of a word or phrase.
The repetition of two or more consonant sounds in a group of words or a unit of speech or writing.
An analysis or assessment of a thing or situation for the purpose of determining its nature, limitations, and conformity to a set of standards.
One who expects and observes nothing but the worst of human conduct.
A method of reasoning by which specific definitions, conclusions, and theorems are drawn from general principles.
The dictionary definition of a word.
The resolution that occurs at the end of a narrative or drama, real or imagined.
Graphic, exact, and accurate presentation of the characteristics of a person, place, or thing.
deus ex machina
In literature, the use of an artificial device or gimmick to solve a problem.
The choice of words in oral and written discourse.
Having an instructive purpose; intending to convey information or teach a lesson, usually in a dry, pompous manner.
That portion of discourse that wanders or departs from the main subject or topic.
As distinguished from Apollonian, the word refers to sensual, pleasure-seeking, impulses.
A circumstance in which the audience or reader knows more about a situation than a character.
A poem or prose selection that laments or meditates on the passing or death of someone or something of value.
Three periods (...)indicating the omission of words in a thought or quotation.
A sentence containing a deliberate omission of words.
A feeling of association or identification with an object or person.
A narrative poem that tells of the adventures and exploits of a hero.
A concise but ingenious, witty, and thoughtful statement.
Pleasing, harmonious sounds.
An adjective or phrase that expresses a striking quality of a person or thing; Can also be used to apply to vulgar or profane exclamations.
A term for the title character of a work of literature.
A mild or less negative usage for a harsh or blunt term.
A detailed analysis or interpretation of a work of prose or poetry.
A factual piece of writing that reveals weaknesses, faults, frailties, or other shortcomings.
The background and events that lead to the presentation of the main idea or purpose of an essay or other work; setting forth the meaning or purpose of a piece of writing or discourse.
The interpretation or analysis of a text.
A series of comparisons between two unlike objects.
A short tale, often with nonhuman characters, from which a useful lesson or moral may be drawn.
fallacy, fallacious reasoning
An incorrect belief or supposition based on faulty data, defective evidence, false information, or flawed logic.
A story containing unreal, imaginary features.
A comedy that contains an extravagant and nonsensical disregard of seriousness, although it may have a serious, scornful purpose.
figure of speech, figurative language
In contrast to literal language, figurative language implies meanings.
A structure that provides a premise or setting for a narrative or other discourse.
A term used to describe literary forms, such as novel, play, and essay.
A forceful sermon, lecture, or tirade.
A leture or sermon on a religious or moral theme meant to guide human behavior.
Excessive pride that often affects tone.
A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity.
Overstatement; gross exaggeration for rhetorical effect.
A lyric poem or passage that describes a kind of ideal life or place.
A word or phrase representing that which can be seen, touched, tasted, smelled, or felt.
the use of images in speech and writing.
A rendering of a quotation in which actual words are not stated but only approximated or paraphrased.
A method of reasoning in which a number of specific facts or examples are used to make a generalization.
A conclusion or proposition arrived at by considering facts, observations, or some other specific data.
A direct verbal assault; a denunciation; casting blame on someone or something.
A mode of expression in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is stated, often implying ridicule or light sarcasm; a state of affairs or events that is the reverse of what might have been expected.
A device employed in Anglo-Saxon poetry in which the name of a thing is replaced by one of its functions or qualities.
A mocking, satirical assault on a person or situation.
A form of understatement in which the negative of the contrary is used to achieve emphasis or intensity.
A sentence that follows the customary word order of English sentences, i.e., subject-verb-objects. The main idea of the sentence is presented first and is then followed by one or more subordinate clauses.
Personal, reflective prose that reveals the speaker's thoughts and feelings about the subject.
A confused use of words in which the appropriate word is replaced by one with a similar sound but inappropriate meaning.
A saying or proverb expressing common wisdom or truth.
A literary form in which events are exaggerated in order to create an extreme emotional response.
A figure of speech that compares unlike objects.
When several characteristics of the same objects are compared
A metaphor referring to a particular person, place, or thing
A term describing poetry that uses elaborate conceits, expresses the complexities of love and life, and is highly intellectual. More generally, it refers to ideas that are neither analytical nor subject to empirical verification; that is, ideas that express an attitude about which rational argument is impossible.
A figure of speech that uses the name of one thing to represent something else with which it is associated.
The language spoken in England roughly between 1150 and 1500 A.D.
A parody of traditional epic form.
Feigned or deliberately artificial seriousness, often for satirical purposes.
The general form, pattern, and manner of expression of a piece of discourse.
A quick succession of images or impressions used to express an idea.
The emotional tone or prevailing atmosphere in a work of literature or other discourse. In grammar, it refers to the intent of a particular sentence.
used for statements of fact
used to express doubt or a conditional attitude
A brief and often simplistic lesson that a reader may infer from a work of literature.
A phrase, idea, or event that through repetition serves to unify or convey a theme in an essay or other discourse.
(n.) One of the ancient Greek goddesses presiding over the arts; the imaginary source of inspiration for an artist or writer. (v.) To reflect deeply; to ponder.
An imaginary story that has become an accepted part of the cultural or religious tradition of a group of society.
A form of verse or prose (both fiction and nonfiction) that tells a story. A storyteller may use any number of narrative devices, such as skipping back and forth in time, ordering events chronologically, and ordering events to lead up to a suspenseful climax.
A term often used as a synonym for realism; also a view of experience that is generally characterized as bleak and pessimistic.
A statement or idea that fails to follow logically from the one before.
(adj.) Of or relating to facts and reality, as opposed to private and personal feelings and attitudes.
A lyric poem usually marked by serious, respectful, and exalted feelings toward the subject.
The Anglo-Saxon language spoken from approximately 450 to 1150 A.D. in what is now Great Britain.
A narrator with unlimited awareness, understanding, and insight of characters, setting, background, and all other elements of the story.
The use of words whose sounds suggest their meaning.
A term consisting of contradictory elements juxtaposed to create a paradoxical effect.
A story consisting of events from which a moral or spiritual truth may be derived.
A statement that seems self-contradictory but is nevertheless true.
The structure required for expressing two or more grammatical elements of equal rank. Coordinate idea,s compared and contrasted ideas and correlative constructions call for parallel construction.
An imitation of a work meant to ridicule its style and subject.
A version of a text put into simple, everyday words or summarized for brevity.
A work of literature dealing with rural life.
Faulty reasoning that inappropriately ascribes human feelings to nature or nonhuman objects.
That element in literature that stimulates pity or sorrow.
Narrowly academic instead of broad and humane; excessively petty and meticulous.
A sentence that departs from the usual word order of English sentences by expressing its main thought only at the end. In other words, the particulars in the sentence are presented before the idea they support.
The role or facade that a character assumes or depicts to a reader or other audience.
A figure of speech in which objects and animals are given human characteristics.
The interrelationship among the events in a story
the pattern of events, including exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution
point of view
The relation in which a narrator or speaker stands to a subject of discourse.
A matter discussed in the first person has this
an observer uses this
the part of a sentence that is not the grammatical subject. It often says something about the subject
A noun that provides another name for the subject
Any discourse that is not poetry
a selection of prose that, because of its language or content, is poetic in nature
A short pithy statement of general truth that condenses common experience into memorable form.
A false name or alias used by writers.
Novels written for mass consumption, often emphasizing exciting and titillating plots.
A humorous play on words, using similar-sounding or identical words to suggest different meanings.
The depiction of people, things, and events as they really are without idealization or exaggeration for effect.
The part of discourse wherein opposing arguments are anticipated and answered.
Repetition of an idea using different words, often for emphasis or other effect.
Reuse of the same words, phrases, or ideas for rhetorical effect, usually to emphasize a point.
The withdrawal of a previously stated idea or opinion.
The language of a work and its style; words, often highly emotional, used to convince or sway an audience.
A general term that identifies discourse according to its chief purpose. Includes exposition, argumentation, description, and narration.
to explain, analyze, or discuss an idea
to prove a point or to persuade
to recreate or present with details
to relate an anecdote or story
A question to which the audience already knows the answer; a question asked merely for effect with no answer expected.
Language that conveys a speaker's attitude or opinion with regard to a particular subject.
The repetition of similar sounds at regular intervals, used mostly in poetry but not unheard of in prose.
The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that make up speech and writing.
An extended narrative about improbable events and extraordinary people in exotic places.
A sharp, caustic attitude conveyed in words through jibes, taunts, or other remarks; differs from irony, which is more subtle.
A literary style used to poke fun at, attack, or ridicule and idea, vice, or foible, often for the purpose of inducing change.
The arrangement of the parts of a sentence. A sentence may be simple, compound, or complex. Sentences may also contain any of these structures in combination with each other. Each variation leaves a different impression on the reader, and along with other rhetorical devices, may create a countless array of effects.
one subject and one verb
two or more independent clauses joined by a conjunction
an independent claus plus one or more dependent clauses
A synonym for view or feeling; also a refined and tender emotion in literature.
A term that describes characters' excessive emotional response to experience; also nauseatingly nostalgic and mawkish.
An environment that consists of time, place, historical milieu, and social, political, and even spiritual circumstances.
A figurative comparison using the words like or as.
stream of consciousness
A style of writing in which the author tries to reproduce the random flow of thoughts in the human mind.
The manner in which an author uses and arranges words, shapes ideas, forms sentences, and creates a structure to convey ideas.
A general term referring to diction, syntax, tone, figurative language, and all other elements that contribute to the "style" or manner of a given piece of discourse.
The name of a grammatical unit that is comprised of predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives.
(adj.) Of or relating to private and personal feelings and attitudes as opposed to facts and reality.
The implied meaning that underlies the main meaning of an essay or other work.
A form of deductive reasoning in which given certain ideas or facts, other ideas or facts must follow. (think transitive property)
The use of one object to evoke ideas and associations not literally part of the original object.
A figure of speech in which a part signifies the whole or the whole signifies the part. When the name of a material stands for the thing itself, that, too, is this.
The organization of language into meaningful structure; every sentence has a particular this, or pattern of words.
The main idea of meaning, often an abstract idea upon which an essay or other form of discourse is built.
The main idea of a piece of discourse; the statement or proposition that a speaker or writer wishes to advance, illustrate, prove, or defend.
The author's attitude toward the subject being written about. This is the characteristic emotion that pervades a work or part of a work -- the spirt or quality that is the word's emotional essence.
A form of literature in which the hero is destroyed by some character flaw or by a set of forces that cause the hero considerable anguish.
A stylistic device used to create a link between ideas. These often endow discourse with continuity and coherence.
The generic name for a figure of speech such as image, symbol, simile, and metaphor.
A restrained statement that departs from what could be said; a studied avoidance of emphasis or exaggeration, often to create a particular effect.
A discrepancy between the true meaning of a situation and the literal meaning of the written or spoken words.
A synonym for poetry; also a group of lines in a song or poem; also a single line of poetry.
Similar to the truth; the quality of realism in a work that persuades readers that they are getting a vision of life as it is or could have been.
The real or assumed personality used by a writer or speaker.
(refers to the use of verbs) A verb is in this when it expresses an action performed by its subject. Stylistically, this leads to more economical and vigorous writing.
(refers to the use of verbs) A verb is in this when it expresses an action performed upon its subject or when the subject is the result of the action.
An object, device, or creation that is fanciful or rooted in unreality.
The quickness of intellect and the power and talent for saying brilliant things that surprise and delight by their unexpectedness; the power to comment subtly and pointedly on the foibles of the passing scene.