Pschology emotions, motivation, and personality

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After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of

instict

In an attempt to lose some of the weight she has gained from binge eating, Melissa tries to compensate by using laxatives and exercising until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

bulimia nervosa

Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to:

cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness.

Some students work hard in school in order to receive high grades. This best illustrates the importance of:

incentives.

A Columbia University study found that teens who took vows pledging virginity until marriage were subsequently:

less likely than other adolescents to use contraceptives if they did have intercourse before marriage.

During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin

the resolution phase

Which of the following is not true with respect to sexual orientation?

With the help of a therapist, most people find it easy to change their sexual orientation.

According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.

adequate clothing; self-esteem

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:

a drive

Homeostasis refers to:

he body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:

reaction formation.

According to Abraham Maslow, people are highly motivated to achieve self-actualization ________ they become concerned with their personal safety and ________ they become concerned with achieving self-esteem.

after; after

According to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of:

psychosexual development.

Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates:

displacement.

Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of:

dream interpretation.

Albert Bandura's social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of:

reciprocal determinism

person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension known as:

conscientiousness.

Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called

traits

According to Freud, the unconscious is:

the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are unaware.

According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the:

id

Four-year-old Timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. However, he starts bed-wetting again soon after his sister is born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates:

regression.

Reaction formation refers to the process by which people:

consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.

According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the:

ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized.

Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as:

fixation

theories of emotion

emotions are a mix of 1 physioclogical activation 2 expressive behaviors and 3 concious experience.

controversies of interplay os phsiology expressions and thoughts in emotions

does our pysiological arousal precede or follow our emotional espericence?

does cognition always precede emotion?

james-lange theory

that physiological repsponses comes first folowed by the emotion

cannon-bard theory

emotion triggering stimulus and the body;s arousal take place simultaneously

schacter's cognitive theory

two-factor theor- emotions have two ingerdients. physical arousal and vognitive label.

arousal and performance

performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well learned tasks.

subjective well-being

self percieved happiness or satisfaction with life.

predictors of happiness

-high selfesteem
-opotimistic, outgoing, and agreeable.
-have close friendships of a satisfying marriage
-have work and leisure that engage thair skills
-have a meaningful religious faith
-sleep well and exersize

motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

maslows hierarchy of needs

maslows heierarchy of needs stars at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

self-actualication needs

need to live up to on'es fullest and unique potential

esteem needs

need for self esteem achievment competence and independence need for recognition and respect from others

belongingness and love needs

need to love nad be loved to belong and be accepted need to avoid loneliness and alienation

safety needs

need to feel that the world is organized and predictable need to feel safe, secure, and stable

physiological needs

need to satisfy hunger and thirst

sexual response cycle

excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

efects of porn of women and men

women experience heightened srousal under controlled conditions
men become sexually aroused why veiwing erotic material

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

predictors of homosexuality

levay found that the brain anatomy influences sexual orientation

freud's personality theory

the unconscious is reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes feelings and memories

id

unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and agressive drives, operatinf on the pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification

superego

the conscienece provides standars for judgement and future aspisrations internalized from others, what we ought to be produces guilt and pride

ego

the executive the demands of the id and superego by working on the reality priciple

fixation

a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved

reaction formation

psychoanalytical defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously swtiches unacceptable impulses into their oppoistes. thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings

projection

psychanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

rationalization

defense mechanism that offers self justifying explanations in place of the real, more threateing, unconscious reasons for one's actions

repression

banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

displacement

shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person. redirecting anger towards a safer outlet

regression

when someone is faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage

projective test

a personality test such as the rorschach or TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

Jung's collective unconcious

a common reservoir of images derived from our species past. this is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nuturance

the big five

Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, neuroticism, openess, extraversion.

conscienetiousness

organized, careful, disciplined VS. disorganized, careless, impulsive

agreeable

sofer-hearted, trustng, helpful VS. ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative

neuroticism

calm, secure, self-satisfied VS. anxious, insecure, self-pitying

openess

imaginative, preference for variety, independent VS. practical preference for routine, conforming

extraversion

sociable, fun-loving, affectionate VS. retiring, sober, reserved

social cognitive perspective

bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction between a persona dn their social context

reciprocal determinism

different people choose different enviorments
our personalities shape how we react to events
our personalities shape situations.

bottom up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory resptiors and works up to the brain's intergration of sensory information

top down processing

information processing guided by higher lever mental proesses as when we construct perceptions drawing on out experience and expectations

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