Digestive System

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Mucosa

wall of the digestive tract inner layer; absorption of nutrients

Submucosa

connective tissue layer containing blood vessels and nerves in the wll of the digestive tract.

Muscularis

two layers of muscle surrounding the digestive tube that produce wavelike, rhythmic contractions

Serosa

outermost covering of the digestive tract; composed of the parietal pleura in the abdominal cavity;Visceral peritonueum.

Crown

visible part (enamel)

Neck

narrow portion surrounded by gingiva.

Root

fits into socket in jaw.

Salivary Glands

secrete amylase; enzyme for carbohydrate digestion.

Parotid Gland

largest salivary gland.

Submandibular Gland

salivary glands that drain saliva into the mouth on either side of the lingual frenuleum.

Sublingual Glands

salivary glands that drain saliva into the floor of the mouth.

Pharynx

area behind nasal cavities and mouth; participated in digestion and respiration; commonly called the throat.

Esophagus

the muscular, mucus-lined tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach; also known as the foodpipe.

Chyme

partially digested food mixture leaving the stomach.

Fundus

upper portion above GE opening.

Body

center of stomach.

Pylorus

lower narrow section; joins small intestine.

Pyloric sphincter

separates pylorus/duodenum; prevents food from leaving the stomach and entering the duodenum.

Small Intestine

20 feet long; duodenum, jejunum, Ileum; has multiple folds in wall and fingers called villi.

Plica

multiple circular folds.

Villi

fingerlike folds covering the plicae of the small intestines.

Duodenum

the first subdivision of the small intestine where most chemical digestion occurs.

Jejunum

the middle third of the small intestine.

Ileum

the distal portion of the small intestine.

Liver

largest gland in the body; classified as exocrine gland.

Gallbladder

pouch on underside of liver; concentrates and stores liver bile.

Pancreas

endocrine gland located in the abdominal cavity; contains pancratic islets that secrete glucagon and insulin; digest fats, proteins and carbohdrates.

Bile

substance that reduces large fat globules into smaller droplets of fat that are more easily broken down.

Large Intestine

terminal portion of digestive tract; primary function is absorbtion of water and salts.

Ileocecal Valve

the sphincter-like structure between the end of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine.

Cecum

blind pouch; the pouch at the proximal end of the large intestine

Ascending colon

flows upward on right side; large intestine.

Transverse colon

extends across front of abdomen

Descending colon

flows downward on left side; large intestine.

Sigmoid colon

S-shaped segment of the large intestine that teminates in the rectum.

Rectum

distal portion of the large intestine.

Anal canal

terminal portion of the rectum.

Sphincter

ring-shaped muscle.

Appendix

worm shaped; attached to cecum.

Splenic Flexure

point at which the descending colon turns downward on the left side of the abdomen.

Peritoneum

large, moist, slippery sheet of serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and its organs.

Parietal

the walls of an organ or a cavity.

Visceral

serous membrane that covers the surface of organs found in the body.

Mesentry

a large double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the loops of the digestive tract to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity.

Glucose

the end process of carbohydrates; begins in the mouth with salivary amylase,but ends in the small intestine.

Amino Acids

The end process of proteins;starts in the stomach.

Enzymes

amylase,rennin, pepsin; a functional protein acting as a biochemical catalyst allowing chemical reactions to take place in a suitable timeframe.

Fatty Acids

the end process of fat digestion; glycerol (glycerin); occurs mostly in the small intestine; must be emulsified by bile in duodenum.

Absorption

passage of a substance through a membrane, such as skin or mucosa, into blood.

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