Unit O: Urinary System

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ADH

hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, which controls urine

bowman's capsule

double-walled capsule around the glomerulus of nephron

calyces

cup-shaped part of the renal pelvis

collecting tubule

structure in nephron which collects urine from the distal convoluted tubule

cortex

outer part of an organ

distal convoluted tubule

tubular process that ascends to the cortex from the loop of Henle

excretion

removing waste from the body

filtrate

plasmalike fluid filtered from the blood in the glomerulus into the bowman's capsule

filtration

movement of water and particles across a semipermeable membrane by a mechanical force (blood pressure)

glomerulus

tuft of capillaries situated within the bowman's capsule

kidneys

functions to rid the body of nitrogenous wastes

loop of Henle

proximal convoluted tubule descends into the medulla forming the loop of Henle

medulla

inner portion of an organ

nephron

unit structure of kidney

proximal convoluted tubule

twisted tubular branch off the bowman's capsule

pyramids

forms the renal pelvis

reabsorption

useful substances filter out of the renal tubules and back into the capillaries around the tubules

retroperitoneal

located behind the peritoneum

secretion

separating, elaborating, and releasing a substance that fulfills some function within the organism or undergoes excretion

ureters

long narrow tubes from the kidneys to the bladder

urethra

urine goes from bladder to the outside of the body

urinary bladder

used to hold urine

urinary meatus

opening to the urethra

urine

liquid product of the body that is secreted by the kidneys by a process called urination and excreted through the urethra

cystitis

inflammation of the bladder

dialysis (hemodialysis)

used to treat kidney failure

diuretic

makes you go to the bathroom

dysuria

painful urination

enuresis

inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination

glycosuria

abnormally high levels of sugar in the urine

hematuria

blood in the urine

incontinence

loss of self-control

kidney transplant

healthy kidney is taken from one person and surgically placed into someone with kidney failure

lithotripsy

shockwaves to break up kidney stones

nephritis

inflammation of the kidney

nocturia

excessive urination during the night

oliguria

little urine

polyuria

excessive urination

pyuria

pus in the urine

renal calculi (kidney stones)

clumping together of calcium phosphate crystals, uric acid, and other substances

urinalysis

chemical analysis of urine

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