6 classes of nutrients
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water
any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue
Energy producing nutrients
Carbohydrates(4cal/g) Fats/Lipids(9 cal/g) Proteins(4cal/g)
Function of carbohydrates
Recommended carbohydrate intake in grams
starches which are made up of many sugars and are found in foods like potatoes, beans, and whole grain cereals
monosaccharides and disaccharides
Functions of fat
it provides protection of organs, insulation of the body, production of sex hormones, but does not provide a quick source of energy
..., plasma or colloidal solutions (free of antigens) administered without risk of reaction, profuses tissues with O2 (helps with osmotic or hydrstatic pressures)
infestation by trichina larvae that are transmitted by eating inadequately cooked meat (especially pork), cook thoroughly!
Nutritional value of alcohol
Enteral formula with intact macronutrient content for clients with full digestive and absorptive function.
physiology of digestive system
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
An emulsifier of fats secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder for release in the small intestine.
all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
The process that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds, thus requiring energy.
breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy
dissolves in water to form a gel; viscous; fermentable; slows passage of food in upper GI tract; holds moisture in stools/softens stools
passes through intestine unchanged, cleans them out and encourages mucus production
the conversion of glucose to glycogen when the glucose in the blood exceeds the demand
conversion of glycogen back to glucose
conversion of glycogen to glucose when blood sugar is low
a trait related to cline, the change in frequency of genotypes depending on geographical regions. Northerners have a trait that helped them retain the ability to break down milk as they got older. People from Med, Africa, and Asians are largely intolerant., impaired ability to digest lactose due to reduced amounts of the enzyme lactase, symptoms include bloating, flatulence, cramping and diarrhea User-contributed
Vit C: scurvy
B1 thiamine: beri beri,
B3 niacin: pellagra
B12: pernicious anemia.
Vit K:gingival bleeding, coagulopathy, night blindness, karotinized skin, growth defects, weakened immune system, rickets, osteomalocia, bow legged, scurvy, bleeding, anemia, hemmerhage, loosing weight, parnema,, Poor diet, Extended fever, Hyperthyroidism, Liver disease, Alcoholism, Malabsorption, Pregnancy and breast-feeding
water soluble, helps body make protein and energy and red blood cells, regulates blood sugar, Sources: beans, meat, poultry, some fruits and vegetables Deficiencies- prenicious anemia, degeneration of peripheral nerves, may cause numbness, tingling in fingers and toes, BERIBERI.
found in citrus fruits, green vegetables, melons, potatoes, tomatoes; aids in bone, teeth, and skin formation; resistance to infection; iron uptake, Ascorbic acid, water soluable, is needed for synthesis of collagen, needed to form connective tissue and fight infection
fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K, usually carried int he fatty portion of food, can be stored in the body and toxic if over taken, prevent and treat bleeding disorders resulting from a lack of prothrombin, commonly a vitamin K deficiency, (vit A D E and K) they cant be dissolved. They get absorbed through the lymph with fat and transported by protiens. They are not easily eliminated, they can build up and cause toxic responses
vitamin supplementation indications
-People who have deficiency diseases.
-People with diseases of the liver, pancreas, gall bladder, and digestive system because these diseases impair absorption.
-People taking medications that interfere with the body's use of specific nutrients.
-People who have illnesses or extensive injuries or who have
undergone surgery resulting in increased metabolic needs.
-People who abuse alcohol and other drugs.
Is necessary for normal bone and tooth development
a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction, Reduces neural tube defects by 50% - spinabifida & anencephaly, 400 micrograms daily - 1 month prior to pregnancy. Oranges
Folate metabolism, formation of myelin sheath. Stomach secretes intrinsic factor, B12 and intrinsic factor absorbed in intestines.
Good sources: animal products. only synthesized in bacteria.
mineral that plays important role in hemoglobin
foods high in fiber
whole grains and bran, peas and beans, fresh fruits and vegetables.
protein deficiency disease caused by a diet low in calories and protein or imbalanced in essential amino acids
deficiency of protein but not calories protruding abd wasted ext dry scaly skin, patchy aloopecia diarrhea
nursing actions to reduce nausea and vomiting
storage form of glucose in plants
indigestible substances in foods, made mostly of carbohydrate
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids., a found in foods such as meat, milk, eggs, and beans that is an important part of the human diet
types of lipids
Fatty Acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols (cholesterol)
long term energy storage molecules formed during condensation synthesis between 3 fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol
fundamental component of biological membranes; biological membranes are fairly fluid and semi-permiable
Lipids that form the basic structure for cholesterol, bile salts, and many hormones such as testosterone and estrogens.
HDL AND LDL
HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are quite frequently estimated to assess the risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
HDL is inversely related to the risk, LDL is directly related
associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease
160+, increase the risk of plaque formation in arteries, increase heart attack risk
saturated and unsaturated fat
saturated- animals fats butter lard
unsaturated- fruit vegetables fish corn oil olive oil and other veg. oils
trans fatty acids
Formed through hydrogenation; not natural; increase heart disease risk; increase shelf-life
from unsaturated to saturated. H is added to f.a. chain
partially hydrogenated oils
trans fatty acids
how to calculate fat in the diet
-Limit total daily fat intake to 30% of kcal. or less.
-Limit saturated fats to less than 10% of our daily kcal.
foods that reduce cholesterol
oats, multigrains, nuts, blueberries,avocados, olives olive oil, flax seed oil, cranberry grape , fish and fish oiljiuce,
process of digestion
mouth--esophogus--stomach--pyloric valve--small intestine--duodenum--jejunum--ileum--large intestine--rectum, 1. starts in mouth 2. food is broken down into small pieces by chewing 3. saliva and enzymes help it break down further 4. goes down esophagus to the stomach 5. acid breaks it down further and adds moisture 6. goes through small intestine where it is absorbed 7. goes through large intestine where water is reabsorbed 8. moves to rectum as a waste product 9. leaves the body through the anus
50-60% body weight, 90% blood plasma, 72% muscle, 60% intracellular, 40% extracellular
water composition: infants
function of water
• helps control temperature
• lubricates and cushions
• excellent transport medium, solvent for nutrients and body wastes and chemical reaction
what regulates the urine volume and osmotic concentration, Kidneys are the principle site of:
normal water intake adults
The normal intake for an adult is 2200-2700 mL per day.
importance of drinking water
Water is essential for normal cellular function
feeding the vision impaired
plate is like clock: meat at 1 oclock, veg at 9 oclock ect.
caloric and protein intake
0.8 grams of
protein per kg. of body weight.
are solutions infused into a client's vein to:(1)maintain or restore fluid balane, (2)maintain or replace electrolyes, (3)administer water soluble vitamins, (3)provide a source of calories, must be isotonic to blood in order to maintain the correct osmotic pressure and prevent cells from either expanding or shrinking from the gain or loss of water.
low residue diet
before and after intestinal surgery, diet that gives the least possible fecal residue, such as gelatin, sucrose, dextrose, broth, and rice
low sodium diet
typically 2g/day or less
Purpose: promote water excretion
Avoid: salt, canned good, MSG, highly processed foods
Use for: Cardiac problems (HF, HTN) and Renal/liver failure
For people with diabetes NCS: no concentrated sweets LCS: low concentrated sweets ADA: American Diabetic Association
inorganic nutrient the body needs, usually in small amounts
required in amounts >100 mg/day (calcium, sodium, potassium, cholride, phosphorous, sulfer, magnesium)
required in amts <100 mg/day; (iron, zinc, iodine, chromium, selenium, fluoride, copper, manganese, molybdenum)
serum calcium levels
controlled by 2 hormones
PTH parathyriod hormone
calcitonin, are altered in patients with osteomalacia, parathyroid dysfunction, Paget's disease, metastaic bone tumors, or prolonged immobilization.
low serum calcium levels
Chronic renal failure
Absent active vitamin D
Deficiency: Goiter, or enlargement of thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism, which includes decreased body temperature, inability to tolerate cold temperatures, weight gain, fatigue, and sluggishness. During pregnancy, causes a form of mental retardation in the infant called cretinism.
giving nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract, alternate form of feeding that involves passing a tube into the gastrointestinal tract to allow instillation of the appropriate formula
the delivery of nutrients by vein ( used when pt. is physically or psychologically cannot consume enough nutrients orally and enterally)
delivering nutrients through a tube into the stomach or intestine; used in people who have a functioning GI tract but unable to eat; easier and cheaper than using a vein; can get clogged
benefits of enteral feeding
tube feeding not recommended
predigested nutrients that are easier for partially dysfunctional GI tract to absorb (1-3 kcal/ml)
3.8-4kcal/ml, single macronutrient preparations and are not nutritionally complete; added to foods to meet patient's individual nutritional needs
Designed to meet specific nutritional needs in certain illness (e.g. liver failure, pulmonary disease, HIV infection)
The type of solution which would cause no appreciable change in the size or condition of a blood cell placed in it would be
Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water., describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
routes for tube feeding
continuous tube feeding
30 to 69 ml in 8 - 12 hours
intermittent tube feeding
150 - 250 ml in 20 - 30 mins. Intermittent infusion feedings that can be administered by gravity drip or syringe for those patients with gastric feeding tubes. These feedings are essentially the equivalent of a meal, consisting entirely of formula. a set amount of formula runs down the feeding tube at specific times during the day. These usually, but not always, correspond to breakfast, lunch and dinner times. Some regimens include one or more "snacks" as well, for a total of four to six feedings per day. These feedings are usually more convenient for caregivers, since feedings are administered only at specific times, and larger amounts are given at each sitting.
pour prescribed amount into tube; flows by gravity; likely to cause n/v, aspiration, *diarrhea, cramping, hang bag above stomach, clamp tubing, fill bag with formula, prime tubing, reclamp tube, attach to tube and open clamp, adjust flow, flush tube with water, disconnect
risks of tube feeding
gastric reflux, dumping syndrome
Rapid emptying of gastric contents into small intestines. Client experience ab pain, nausea, vomiting, explosive diarrhea, weakness, dizziness, palpitations & tachycardia.
tube feeding complications
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
fetal alcohol syndrome
condition resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol and marked by decreased alertness, hyperactivity, varying degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects, and facial abnormalities
1) Historical info such as health or socio economic
2)Anthropomorphic Data such as height and weight
3) Physical Exam such nails and hair
4) Lab test such as blood and urine
methods for analyzing height and weight measurements
Body Mass Index, an index of weight in relation to height that is used to assess healthy body weight, , The ratio of a person's weight in kilograms dividided by his or her height in meters squared. A normal weight is between 20 and 25 BMI. Above 25 is considered overweight; BMI of 30 or more is obese.
ideal body weight, weight / IBW x 100
Cheese, Pasta, Eggs, Lean meat
foods recommended for diarrhea
The body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, which builds up in the blood and body tissue; a recessive genetic disorder.
a client is instructed to eat a diet high in vegtables, fruits, low protein breads and pastas, and juices. Hes is also told to limit the amount of peas, potatoes, french fries, bread, corn, regular pastas adn rice. this client is on what kind of det?
older adult dietary needs
A blood product (or blood-based product) is any component of the blood which is collected from a donor for use in a blood transfusion
Blood substitutes (also called artificial blood or blood surrogates) are artificial substances aiming to provide an alternative to blood-based products acquired from donors.
The main blood substitutes used today are volume expanders such as crystalloids and colloids
are used to correct acidosis or alkalosis. Lactated Ringer's solution also has some buffering effect. A solution more specifically used for buffering purpose is intravenous sodium bicarbonate.