Belief one's own culture is superior to any other
Position that other cultures have intrinsic worth and can only be evaluated or understood in their own terms
Interprets conquest of an inferior society by a superior one as the result of the action of natural law
Classify cultures into series of stages of development according to their relative complexity
Lewis Henry Morgan Theory
Savagery, Barbarism, Civilization
Humans couldn't do anything, then use fire
Domestication of animals, cultivation
Humans develop the alphabet
Edward B. Tylor Theory
Animism, Polytheism, Monotheism
Believe world is full of spirits
Believe in many gods
Believe in only one god
James Frazer Theory
Magic, Religion, and Science
Magic (In James Frazer context)
Try to control the world
Religion (In James Frazer context)
Comfort in religion
Science (In James Frazer context)
Master the world based on rational thinking
Terms of unilineal evolution
Stages, sequences, lower/higher, less advanced/more advanced
Seeing something from a native's point of view
Seeing something outside of natives point of view
Way members of society adapt to their environment and give meaning to their lives
Properties of Culture (7)
Shared, learned, symbolic, adaptive, integrated, transmitted cross-generationally, changes
Culture as sandpile (Conceptualization)
Composite of belief, folklore, material culture, kinship
Study Methods of Culture as a sandpile
Trait listing, inventory-taking, mapping
Believer in Culture as a Sandpile
Culture as spider web (Conceptualization)
System, different parts are interrelated, major configuration with systematic character, overall structure/pattern
Main concepts of culture as a spider web
Enculteration, deviance, personality
Believer of culture as a spider web
Culture as Machine (Conceptualization)
Culture provides learned behaviors, cooperative patterns and social institutions that make need fulfillment possible
Believer in Culture as a Machine
Culture as living organism (Conceptualization)
To keep entire social system in a steady state or maintain social equilibrium
Believer in Culture as living organism
Problems with Culture as sandpile, spider web, machine, and living organism
-No role for human agency
-Unable to deal with cultural change
Culture as octopus (Conceptualization)
Culture is systematic, admits diversity and contradictions within a culture
Believer of Culture as a octopus
Culture as a Game (Conceptualization)
Culture serves as rules, tactics, and prize setting made by society members
Historical definition of culture
Social heritage, tradition, passed on future generations
Behavioral definition of culture
Shared, learned behavior, way of life
Functional definition of culture
Way humans solve problems of adapting environment
Normative definition of culture
Culture is ideas, values, or rules for living
Symbolic definition of culture
Culture based on assigned meanings that are shared by society
First generation anthropologist methods of ethnographic research
Recording, Description, Mapping
Specific questions (questionnaire) that collects demographic, economic, and genealogies of a group data
Who personalized the idea of Participant Observation?
Basic Elements of Participant Observation (5)
Researcher must live close to people they study, interact with them on daily basis, stay for long period of time, learn group's language, write field notes of diary
Difficulties of fieldwork
Overcome entry barrier, developing a rapport, identifying reliable informants
Where did Bronislaw study?
Who was a believer in functionalism?
What was an important aspect of the people on the Trobriand Islands
What was the Kula?
The exchange process between the Trobriand people where they exchange necklaces and bracelets
Cross cultural comparison steps (3)
Hypothesis, choose sample of societies and study ethnographies, analyze data statistically
Problems of Cross Cultural Comparison
Researcher's bias, isolation in sampling, examining data a-historically
Anthropology is sciences, technology is most important cultural aspect, humans must adapt to conditions in natural environment
Focus of Materialistics
Similarities of different cultures
Anthro is humanistic field, human needs can be satisfied in many ways, treat cultures like "texts" rather than things
Emphasis of Idealists
Uniqueness of culture
Meaning of Culture is a Text (3)
Culture is a text composed of symbols, anthropologist is the reader of the text, find causal relationship
Who promotes the dictionary method?
What is the Dictionary method
Dictionary explains meanings of words in terms of other words, only if one knows the meaning of many words in a dictionary can they use it to decipher the meaning of unknown words
Observable physical characteristics that distinguish females and males
Cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex
Women's Gender Norms (2)
Men's Gender Norms (5)
Not being a sissy, successful, strong (self reliant), aggressive, be a stud
Agents of Gender Norms
Parents, mass medium, teachers, peers
What is Tourism?
Social practice that combines recreation with business
Who are tourists?
Travelers who value "life-style" more than occupation as basis of social status and self identity
What is a traveler?
Travel means work, trouble and torment
What is a tourist?
Travel's something to enjoy
What is the focus of industrial society?
Production, accumulation, work
What is the focus of Post industrial society?
Consumption and lifestyle
What makes tourism work? (5)
Leisure time, disposable income, travel ethic (motivation), commodification of culture, and modern technologies
What is the equation for Tourism?
Leisure+ Discretionary Income+ Motivations
Types of tourists? (3)
Organized, individual mass tourists, backpackers
What is an organized tourist?
Mass tourists (resorts and beaches)
What is an individual mass tourist?
Arrange own itinerary
Where does motivation to travel come from?
Authenticity, real experiences
Impacts of Mass tourism (4)
Forced to meet needs of tourists, dramatic and disruptive cultural change, dependency on tourists and industry, environmental damage
What should new tourists be? (4)
Sensible, sensitive, sophisticated, sustainable
What is globalization?
International movement of capital, people, and cultural ideas
What does it mean to not be globalized?
Fruits of globalization aren't shared (prosperity, travel, migration, technology, democracy)
What advancements were made in 1890-1914 globalization?
Telegraph, automobile, steamboat, airplane
Why do other scholars argue globalization took place in 16th century?
Started with the rise of capitalism
What was stage 1 of rise of capitalism (3)
Destruction of European feudalism, Creation of system of world trade, creation of colonies and slave based production
What is capitalism
Economic system dominated by supply-demand price mechanism called market
What is the key metaphor for capitalism?
Commodity (has to have price tag)
What is the modernization theory?
American model- political stability and economic prosperity
What is the path of the modernization theory?
Apply science and technology to mass production, rational management of resources, democratize social system
What did modernization theory create?
New hierarchies of social development (2nd world, 3rd world), it wasn't racist but ethnographic, and cultural imperialism
What is inequality?
Extent to which valued materials and social rewards are given disproportionately to individuals, families, and groups
What are the dimensions of social stratification?
Economic status/wealth, power status, prestige
What is class?
All people in a given society who have different degrees of wealth, power, and prestige
What is the functional theory of inequality?
If no reward, highly talented people will have no incentive to work hard. There should be differences in reward to those who are more successful
What is the conflict theory of inequality?
Stratification isn't beneficial to all society, only the elite who use wealth to influence the passing of laws thath benefit themselves
Who believed in the conflict theory of inequality?
What is Marxism
School of social theory
What did Marx believe was the order of class struggle for humans?
Slavery- Feudalism- Capitalist- Communist
PRactice of attempting to understand cultures within their contexts
Description of culture based on written records, interviews, and archaeology
Searched for cultural laws in relationships among kinships, religion, and politics
Sapir- Whorf hypothesis
Early 20th century, language plays critical role in way people understand the world because of the way we talk about it
Access of individual and groups to basic material resources, wealth, power and prestige
no individual is denied access to resources
What are bands?
Foragers, egalitarian, reciprocity
What are tribes?
Horticulturalists or herders, egalitarian,
What are chiefdoms?
Rank societies characterized by chief, redistribution, horticulturalists and herders
Series of political and economic policies promoting free trade, individual initiative, and minimum government regulation of economy
Who was a representative for cultural relativism?
System of meanings and values which are expression or projection of a particular group's interest
Role of Ideology (3)
Legitimizing existing order, mediating contradictions, mystifying sources of exploitation and inequality in society
Ideological Domination (3)
Common sense values, take-for-granted, consensus building