Position that other cultures have intrinsic worth and can only be evaluated or understood in their own terms
Interprets conquest of an inferior society by a superior one as the result of the action of natural law
Classify cultures into series of stages of development according to their relative complexity
Properties of Culture (7)
Shared, learned, symbolic, adaptive, integrated, transmitted cross-generationally, changes
Culture as spider web (Conceptualization)
System, different parts are interrelated, major configuration with systematic character, overall structure/pattern
Culture as Machine (Conceptualization)
Culture provides learned behaviors, cooperative patterns and social institutions that make need fulfillment possible
Culture as living organism (Conceptualization)
To keep entire social system in a steady state or maintain social equilibrium
Problems with Culture as sandpile, spider web, machine, and living organism
-No role for human agency
-Unable to deal with cultural change
Culture as octopus (Conceptualization)
Culture is systematic, admits diversity and contradictions within a culture
Culture as a Game (Conceptualization)
Culture serves as rules, tactics, and prize setting made by society members
Specific questions (questionnaire) that collects demographic, economic, and genealogies of a group data
Basic Elements of Participant Observation (5)
Researcher must live close to people they study, interact with them on daily basis, stay for long period of time, learn group's language, write field notes of diary
Difficulties of fieldwork
Overcome entry barrier, developing a rapport, identifying reliable informants
What was the Kula?
The exchange process between the Trobriand people where they exchange necklaces and bracelets
Cross cultural comparison steps (3)
Hypothesis, choose sample of societies and study ethnographies, analyze data statistically
Problems of Cross Cultural Comparison
Researcher's bias, isolation in sampling, examining data a-historically
Anthropology is sciences, technology is most important cultural aspect, humans must adapt to conditions in natural environment
Anthro is humanistic field, human needs can be satisfied in many ways, treat cultures like "texts" rather than things
Meaning of Culture is a Text (3)
Culture is a text composed of symbols, anthropologist is the reader of the text, find causal relationship
What is the Dictionary method
Dictionary explains meanings of words in terms of other words, only if one knows the meaning of many words in a dictionary can they use it to decipher the meaning of unknown words
Who are tourists?
Travelers who value "life-style" more than occupation as basis of social status and self identity
What makes tourism work? (5)
Leisure time, disposable income, travel ethic (motivation), commodification of culture, and modern technologies
Impacts of Mass tourism (4)
Forced to meet needs of tourists, dramatic and disruptive cultural change, dependency on tourists and industry, environmental damage
What does it mean to not be globalized?
Fruits of globalization aren't shared (prosperity, travel, migration, technology, democracy)
Why do other scholars argue globalization took place in 16th century?
Started with the rise of capitalism
What was stage 1 of rise of capitalism (3)
Destruction of European feudalism, Creation of system of world trade, creation of colonies and slave based production
What is the path of the modernization theory?
Apply science and technology to mass production, rational management of resources, democratize social system
What did modernization theory create?
New hierarchies of social development (2nd world, 3rd world), it wasn't racist but ethnographic, and cultural imperialism
What is inequality?
Extent to which valued materials and social rewards are given disproportionately to individuals, families, and groups
What is class?
All people in a given society who have different degrees of wealth, power, and prestige
What is the functional theory of inequality?
If no reward, highly talented people will have no incentive to work hard. There should be differences in reward to those who are more successful
What is the conflict theory of inequality?
Stratification isn't beneficial to all society, only the elite who use wealth to influence the passing of laws thath benefit themselves
What did Marx believe was the order of class struggle for humans?
Slavery- Feudalism- Capitalist- Communist
Sapir- Whorf hypothesis
Early 20th century, language plays critical role in way people understand the world because of the way we talk about it
Access of individual and groups to basic material resources, wealth, power and prestige
What are chiefdoms?
Rank societies characterized by chief, redistribution, horticulturalists and herders
Series of political and economic policies promoting free trade, individual initiative, and minimum government regulation of economy
System of meanings and values which are expression or projection of a particular group's interest
Role of Ideology (3)
Legitimizing existing order, mediating contradictions, mystifying sources of exploitation and inequality in society