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Central Place

A market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area.

Central Place Theory

A geographic concept that explains how services are distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements exists.

Hinterland

Also called "market area", this is the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted to.

Range

The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.

Threshold

The minimum number of people needed to support the service.

Gravity Model

Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.

Rank-Size Rule

The country's n-th largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.

Modern World Cities

London, New York, and Tokyo.

World Cities

Most closely integrated into the global economic system because they are at the center of the flow of information and capital.

Central Business District (CBD)

Services of all types clustered in the center of the city, commonly called downtown.

Concentric zone model

model created by EW Burgess in 1923, which explains that a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings, like the growth rings on a tree.

Density gradient

density change in an urban area.

Edge city

city around a beltway that is a node of consumer and business services

Filtering

process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower-income people.

Gentrification

process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing.

Multiple nuclei model

model created by CD Harris and EL Ullman in 1945, which explains that a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve.

Peripheral model

model created by Chauncey Harris, which describes how an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.

Public housing

housing provided to low-income households, who pay 30% of their income as rent for the housing.

Redlining

drawing of lines on a map to identify areas in which banks will refuse to loan money.

Renovated housing

housing maintained as result of the alternative to demolishing houses.

Sector model

theory developed by land economist Homer Hoyt in 1939, which explains that a city develops in a series of sectors rather than rings.

Squatter settlement

settlement where a large percentage of poor immigrants to urban areas in LDCs live because of a housing shortage.

Underclass

what inner-city residents are frequently referred to because they are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems.

Urban renewal

something under which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, and build new roads and utilities.

Zoning ordinances

rules developed in Europe and North America in the 20th century that encouraged spatial separation. They also prevented mixing of land uses within the same district.

Primate City

The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.

Action Space

The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis.

Medieval City

European-style city with high density of development, narrow buildings, and an ornate church at the city center, with high walls for defense.

Suburbanization

The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.

Smart growth

legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland

Urban Sprawl

The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.

Suburb

A residential district located on the outskirts of a city

Mega City

Cities with over 10 million people
Examples: Rio de Janerios, Mexico City, Bueno Aires.

Urbanization

movement of people from rural areas to cities

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