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Latin West

Western Europe

Importance of Latin West

many achievements; emerged from economic and cultural shadow of Islamic neighbors

Three-field system

Crops grown in two thirds of the field, other third left grew oats

Black death

Bubonic plague

Importance of black death

Wiped out 1/3 of European population; job openings, ended surfism

Water wheel

Used flow of water to turn wheels

Hanseatic League

an association of trading cities

Guild

association of craft specialists

Gothic cathedrals

architectural wonders of their times; huge cathedrals

renaissance

"Rebirth"; intellectual and artistic renewal.

Universities

degree-granting corporations specializing in multidisciplinary research and advanced teaching

Scholasticism

synthesized reason and faith

Humanists

Intrist in grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy

Importance of Humanists

focused on the individual

printing press

A mechanical device that pressed inked type onto sheets of paper

Importance of printing press

allowed fast and easy reproduction of books and papers

Great Western Schism

rival papal claimants at Avigon vs papal claimants in Rome

Importance of GWS

further eroded papal authority

Hundred years war

King of France vs vassals

Importance of HYW

first use of cannon; Joan of Arc

New Monarchies

more centralized power, more fixed national boundaries and stronger representative institutions

reconquest of Iberia

Spanish drove Muslim rule back

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