a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
The result of the conflict over The Caroline ship, which consisted of angry Americans and Canadians, mostly lumberjacks, began moving into the disputed Aroostook River region, causing a violent brawl.
signed August 9, 1842, was a treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies, particularly a dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border.
territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada; land claimed by both U.S. and Britain and held jointly under the Convention of 1818
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!"
Political slogan of the Democrats in the election of 1844, which claimed fifty-four degrees, forty minutes as the boundary of the Oregon territory claimed by the United States
James K. Polk
The 11th U.S. President, he led the country during the mexican war and sought to expand the United States
It was recognized as the southwestern boundary of Texas
Mexico thought this river was the border between Texas and Mexico
War declared in 1846 after Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande into Texas. Was ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which gave the U.S. Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million to Mexico
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
led a small amy that captured Santa Fe with no opposition; later joined the Bear Flag Revolution
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
John C. Fremont
an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
proposed in 1846 that congress ban slavery in all southwestern lands that might become states; passed in the House but not by the Senate; slave states saw it as a northern attack on slavery
land that Mexico gave to the United States after the Mexican War through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; included in what is now California, Nevada, and Utah; most of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado, Texdas, and Wyoming
an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.
a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of Cuba from Spain, then suggested the taking of Cuba by force It caused outrage among Northerners who felt it was a Southern attempt to extend slavery as states in Cuba would be southern states.
William Walker, a southern adventurer, tried to take Baja California from Mexico in 1853; took Nicaragua to develop a proslavery empire but collapsed when he was killed by Honduran authorities
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary
Great American Desert
The vast arid territory that included the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau. Known as this before 1860, they were the lands between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast.
American adventurers and fur trappers who spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains
The long and arduous trek usually began in St. Joseph or Independence Missouri or in Iowa and followed the river valleys through the Great Plains, months later, the wagon trains would finally reach the foothills of the Rockies or face the hardships of the southwestern desserts.
Discovery of Gold in California caused a flood of people into the west.
A period of time in which hundreds of thousands of citizens moved west and began to farm the frontier, very much due to the Homestead Act of 1862, which offered 160 acres of free public land to any family that settled there for a period of 5 years.
Western cities that arose as a result of railroads, mineral wealth, and farming.
Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.
Samuel F. B. Morse
Invented the telegraph which allowed faster communication over longer distances. He also developed Morse code
Vested exclusively in the federal government, and it extends to all aspects of foreign trade.
Matthew C. Perry
he opened Japan and persuaded it to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa establishing relations with the US
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads