towards the head
towards the tail
toward the nose, typically used when talking about the head
refers to the back of the body of an animal ( the upper surface in rats)
to the belly (the undersurface in rats)
refers to the side of the body (either left or right)
means nearer to the midline
describes the direction from the caudal to cranial end of the animal
a longitudinal, vertical section along the midline from the cranial to the caudal end is a ___ ____
such a section lies in the __ ___
sections or planes parallel with, but lateral to the sagittal plane, are often referred to as _____
also lies on the longitudinal axis, but horizontally at 90° from the sagittal plane; also passing from the cranial to caudal end, but dividing the dorsal from the ventral
90° from the two longitudinal planes and the midline.
transverse (cross section)
a section cut through the body at right angles to the longitudinal axis
separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity
the thin transparent membrane contains flexible loose fibrous connective tissue and lines the abdominal walls.
visceral peritoneum (mesentery)
a similar membrane overlying the abdominal organs (viscera). these serous membranes produce fluid which lubricates the organs, reducing frictional stress on constantly moving viscera
incoming blood to liver comes from ___ ____ from the small intestines and enters the hepatic portal veins
the hepatic portal vein branches repeatedly as it enters the liver forming ______, a sort of specialized capillary bed. these veins join the vena cava as it passes through the liver.
bile duct in rats
bile ducts from the liver join to form a single tube, the ductus choledochus.