AFAA Personal Trainer Certification Study Guide

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Myocardial Infarction

Hear attack occurs due to lack of blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart muscle

Ischemia

lack of blood flow

Stroke Volume

the amount of blood pumped with each beat or systole

Cardiac Output

heart rate x stroke volume. usually measured in liters (or milileters) of blood pumped per minute

Venous Return

The amount of blood returned to the heart by the veins

Valsalva Maneuver

occurs when a person holds his or her breath during a strenuous activity, such as lifting weights or shoveling snow

Minute Ventilation

total amount of air breathed per minute

Residual lung volume

amount of air remaining in the lungs after a complete and total forced exhale

Forced vital capacity

amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a maximal inahle

Total lung capacity

sum of the residual volume and the forced vital capacity

Glucose

body's usable form of carbohydrate

Lactic Acid

produced in muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues

Glycolysis

a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP

Mitochondria

a subcellular structure where oxidation takes place

Beta oxidation

A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA.

Krebs cycle

the acetyl CoA formed in the first component of aerobic metabolism enters into the citric acid cycle

Electron transport system

the final sequence of reactions in the aerobic production of ATP

Maximal oxygen uptake

the maximum amount of oxygen consumed and utilized by the body during an all-out effort to exhaustion

Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption

additional oxygen consumed immediately after an exercise bout when the body is no longer exercising

Sarcomere

each section of a myofibril in muscle

Actin

structural protein that makes up the thin filaments of myofibrils; functions in muscle contraction

Anatomical Position

standing position with hands down and palms facing forward

Supine

lying on the spine

Prone

lying face down

Axial Skeleton

part of the skeleton that contains skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum

Synovial joints

have a small space between the articulating bones that allows for a greater range of motion

Cartilage

a white, semi-opaque, fibrous connective tissue that cushions the joints and prevents wear on the joint surfaces

Synovial membrane

secretes synovial fluid which provides nourishment, lubrication, and hydrotastic cushioning for the joint

Bursae

liquid-filled membranes that protect soft tissues as they pass by bony projections

Ligament

band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone and provides joint stability.

Tendon

dense, fibrous connective tissue that forms the end of a muscle and attaches muscle to bone

Fascia

fibrous connective tissue that forms sheaths for individual muscles.

Circuit Weight Training

resistance exercises performed one after the other without rest for approximately 20 minutes

Muscular Strength

maximum force a muscle or muscle group can generate at one time

Muscle Endurance

capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions, as in push-ups or sit ups, or sustain fixed, static muscle actions for an extended period of time

Muscle Power

explosive aspect of strength, is the product of strength and speed of movement

Muscle Stability

ability of a muscle or muscle group to stabilize a joint and maintain its position without movement. (to perform a sustained isometric contraction)

Muscle hypertrophy

an increase in the muscle fiber size, specifically an increased cross-sectional area resulting from increased myofibrilis

Overload Principle

increasing the intensity (resistance), frequency, or duration of the training above the levels normally expected

Specificity

specific adaptions in the metabolic and neuromuscular systems depending on the type of program or exercises that are performed

Volume

total number of repetitions performed multiplied by the total amount of weight, or resistance, used during a single training session. (Reps x Weight = Volume)

Progressive resistance exercise

resistance must be gradually, progressively increased as the muscles adapt to a given exercise

Periodization

variations in the training program over the course of several months or a year, that help to improve performance and prevent injury, staleness, and burnout

Plateau

a point where further increases in strength become difficult and progress seems to stop

Single-Set System

basic system ( one set 8-12 reps for each muscle group) that is widely recommended and used for beginners and those interested in an effective, time efficient workout

Multiple-Set system

consists of 3 to 6 sets of an exercise, usually the same weight load throughout

Super-Set System

any combination of 2 different exercises immediately following one another without a rest

Tri-Set System

3 different exercises immediately following one another

Dynamic Constant Resistance

external resistance or weight that does not vary through the range of motion

Dynamic Variable Resistance

attempts to match the external resistance to the exerciser's strength curve. Strength varies throughout the range of motion of each muscle

Isokinetic Resistance

maintains constant muscle tension at a steady speed or velocity

Balance

ability to maintain a position without moving for a certain period of time, and can also be defined as a state of bodily equilibrium

Isometric Resistance Training

involves contracting a muscle in a held position, usually against a wall, weight machine, or against another part of the body

Core Exercise

any exercise that is multi-joint and recruits one or more large muscle groups or areas with the synergistic help of one or more smaller muscle groups

Core Training

refers to the center of the body. Incorporates stabilization exercises for muscles of the spine, neck, pelvis, and scapulae

Plyometric Training

involves using the stretch reflex to increase muscle fiber recruitment. (squat jumps, tuck jumps, medicine ball passes)

Scapulae

shoulder blades

Patella

kneecap

Acute Muscle Soreness

occurs during and immediately after exercise and is due to the accumulation of lactate, decreased oxygen, and tissue swelling within the muscle

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)

A temporary muscle soreness and stiffness that occur 24 to 48 hours after performing unaccustomed eccentric muscle contractions and last for three to four days.

Alignment Cue

clearly state which joints are moving and which are still

Safety Cue

lets client know about a potential injury risk and how it can be minimized

Breathing Cue

remind your clients to breathe

Visual Cue

demonstrating a move

Motivational Cue

motivational cues such as "You can do it!" and "Great Job!"

Wrong/Right Cue

help kinesthetically feel when they are in alignment and using proper form. Showing the correct and incorrect way of doing something.

Flexibility

range of motion possible around a joint, or around a series of joints

Ballistic Stretching

characterized by bouncing, pulsing, rapid, or uncontrolled-type movements

Static Stretching

low-intensity, long-duration muscle elongation; ideally in a supported position that allows the muscle fibers to relax

Active (unassisted) Stretching

static or ballistic, performed alone, using the concentric contraction of the opposing muscles

Passive (assisted) Stretching

stretch is initiated by another person or outside force and the person being stretched is passive

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation

flexibility technique that promotes or hastens the neuromuscular response through stimulation of the proprioceptors

Ligament Laxity

results from being born with ligaments that have a higher degree of elastic properties. "double jointed"

Acute Injury

sudden onset due to a specific trauma, such as twisting the ankle

Chronic Injury

excessive, repeated stress is placed on one area of the body over an extended period of time, the affected tissues may begin to fail

Muscle sTrain

overstretching, overexertion, or overuse of soft tissue, less severe than a sprain. May occur from a slight trauma or unaccustomed repeated trauma

Sprain

usually caused by a severe s tress, stretch or tear of the soft tissues such as ligaments or joint capsules

Subluxation

an incomplete or partial dislocation that often involves secondary trauma to the surrounding tissue

Dislocation

displacement of a bony part of a joint that leads to soft tissue damage, inflammation, pain, and muscle spasm

Muscle/Tendon Rupture or Tear

with a partial tear, pain is felt when the muscle is stretched or contracted against resistance. With a complete tear, muscle is incapable of working

Tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon leading to scarring or calcium deposits

Synovitis

inflammation of a synovial membrane; an excessive amount of synovial fluid

Bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

Contusion

bruising from a direct blow, resulting in capillary rupture, bleeding, and inflammation

Adhesions

abnormal adherance of collagen fibers to surrounding tissues during immobilization or after an injury, resulting in a loss of normal elasticity

RICE

Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

Agonist

Prime mover, or the contracting muscle that is responsible for the movement that you see

Antagonist

Muscle that works (opposite) to the prime mover and reflexively elongates to allow the agonist to contract and move the joint

Body Composition

refers to the percentage of weight that is fat and is based on the assumption that body weight can be divided into various components

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

caused by mechanical compression, which results in reduced blood flow to the median nerve

Metacarpals

Hand bones. 5 bones numbered from 1-5, medial to lateral

Carotid Artery

located at the larnyx of neck, used for measuring heart rate

Distal

further from the trunk, situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone

Eccentric Training

Also called negative resistance training, is a muscular action in which the muscle lengthens in a controlled manner.

Concentric Training

exerting more force than is placed on it, results in shortening of muscle

Glenohumeral

shoulder - structure: synovial; ball and socket function:diarthrotic ROM:multiaxial flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation

Slow Twitch Fibers

slow to fatigue and have a high level of aerobic endurance, used for long-term, low to moderate intensity activities ranging from maintaining proper posture to long-distance running

Fast Twitch Fibers

poor aerobic endurance, short-duration, high-intense activities and fatigue quickly

Proprioceptors

sense the degree of tension and the length of the muscle

Flexion

joint angle diminishing, most movements are forward movements

Extension

return from flexion, movement that increases the angle between 2 bones

Rotation

movement around an axis or pivot point

Circumduction

movement in which an extremity describes a circle (360 degrees)

Horizontal Plane (transverse)

divides the body into upper and lower portions. Rotation occurs within the horizontal plane

Frontal Plane (coronal)

divides the body into front and back. Abduction and Adduction occur within the frontal plane

Sagittal Plane (medial)

divides the body into right and left portions. Flexion and extension occur within the sagittal plane

Joint

a point at which 2 or more bones meet and where movement occurs

Cervical Spine

the first seven vertebrae, or the neck

Thoracic Spine

12 vertebrae, where the ribs attach

Lumbar Spine

5 vertebrae, lower back

Sacral Spine

fused to form the sacrum

Sacrum

bone formed from five vertebrae fused together near the base of the spinal column

Coccygeal Spine

4 vertebrae, fused to form the tailbone

Iliopsoas

hip flexors

Hamstrings

Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus

Quadriceps

consists of 4 muscles: vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vestus intermedius, rectus femoris

Talocrural Joint

hinge, synovial,distal tibia, fibular form mortise for trochlea of talus, primary motions are dorsiflexion and plantarflexion,

Subtalar Joint

Ankle eversion and Ankle inversion

Ankle Dorsiflexion

bring top of the foot toward the shin

Ankle Plantar Flexion

bring soles of the foot downward (pointing toes)

Ankle Eversion

Pronation. Arch flattens

Ankle Inversion

Supination, Arch lifts

Isokinetic

muscle actions performed on special equipment in which speed is controlled

First Class Lever

fulcrum is in between the applied force and resistance. example = see-saw

Second Class Lever

fulcrum or axis is at the end of the lever, resistance is in the middle, applied force at the opposite end. example = wheelbarrow

Third Class Lever

axis as one end, applied force in the middle and resistance at the opposite end. example = using a hammer to drive a nail into a piece of wood

Radial Artery

artery of the lower arm. It is felt when taking the pulse at the wrist.

Prehypertension

systolic = 120-1389 mmHG diastolic = 80-89 mmHg

Hypertension

a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)

Optimal Blood Pressure

systolic <120 diastolic<80

Systolic pressure

amount of pressure or force exerted against the arterial walls immediately after the heart has contracted

Diastolic pressure

amount of pressure still remaining against the arterial walls as the heart relaxes before the next contraction

Triceps

opposing muscles of the biceps

Anterior and Medial Deltoids

opposing muscles of the posterior deltoid, mid-trapezius and rhomboids

Abdominals

opposing muscles of the erector spinae

Erector Spinae

extends the back, provides resistance and helps us bend over at the waist

Hip Abductors

works the muscles on the outer part of the upper thigh muscles, A muscle that draws a body part away from the midline or axis of the body.

Hip Adductors

Works the muscles on the inside of the thigh (groin muscles)., Inward toward the median axis of the body or of an extremity.

ITB syndrome

an overuse injury, typically caused by a tight iliotibial band. The band is aggravated by excessive or abnormal rotational movements of the femur and tibia by walking or running

Femur

the longest and thickest bone, upper leg bone

Tibia

Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight

Adenosine Triphosphate

molecule found in every cell of the body that is composed of adenosine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups. It is the form in which food energy is stored in your cells

Phosphagen System

supplies energy very quickly and is the primary source of energy for very high-intensity exercise

Anaerobic Glycolytic System

Glucose is used for fuel and is either blood glucose or muscle glycogen, broken down in to pyruvic acid, when there is insufficient oxygen it then is transformed into lactic acid

Aerobic Energy System

virtually unlimited capacity for making ATP, uses carbs, fat, protein for fuel. Slow to produce ATP

Anaerobic Threshold

when work becomes so intense, muscle cells cannot supply the additional energy and rely more on the anaerobic system to produce ATP. At this level, lactic acid begins to accumulate

Skeletal Muscle

A muscle that is attached to the bones of the skeleton and provides the force that moves the bones.

Smooth Muscle

a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)

Cardiac Muscle

forms the walls of the heart

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