Government Final

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Alexander Hamilton argued that the chief executive office should possess

energy

What was the primary goal of the Constitution's framers?

to create an effective government

Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the states and the federal government can be best compared to

the United Nations' relationship with member states.

The Constitution is a very difficult document to change by amendment.

True

A conference held to analyze perceived flaws in the Articles of Confederation was called the

Annapolis Convention.

James Madison believed that in the Constitutional Convention the greatest conflict of interests was between

northern states and southern states.

The office of the president was designed by the framers to be capable of overcoming the inevitable stalemate of a bicameral legislature.

True

According to the text, the writing of the Constitution demonstrates the

marriage of interests and principles.

What was the most common form of taxation during the colonial era?

taxes on commercial products and activities

During the Philadelphia Convention, the New Jersey Plan was supported by

the less populous states

What is the term length of a member of the House of Representatives?

two years

A ___________ is a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for powers expressly delegated to a national government.

confederacy

Which was the only state not to send delegates to the Constitutional Convention?

Rhode Island

The supremacy clause

announces that the Constitution and all laws made under it are superior to any state laws.

The powers of Congress under the Constitution are __________ those of Congress under the Articles of Confederation

greater than

Colonial protesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famous political slogan?

"No taxation without representation."

Whose "political gospel" inspired the framers to adopt the concept of the separation of phttp://quizlet.com/create_set/owers?

Montesquieu

What led the British to raise taxes on the American colonists during the 1760s?

the French and Indian Wars

Only one-third of the Senate is up for re-election during any single election year, because the framers believed that

this was the only way to protect the Senate against radical changes.

The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government and a loose alliance of nearly independent states

True

What was one effect of dual federalism during the early Republic?

The national government was spared the task of making difficult policy decisions, such as the regulation of slavery, because the states did it themselves.

A federal block grant gives states no discretion on how to spend the money

False

Which constitutional amendment has been used to restrict the scope of authority by the federal government over the states?

Tenth

Unfunded mandate refers to the national government imposing regulatory costs on the states without reimbursement

True

The privileges and immunities clause of Article IV is also referred to as the

comity clause.

During most of the nineteenth century, Congress used its powers to __________ commerce.

regulate

Which is the best example of a concurrent power under the federal constitution?

the power to regulate commercial activity

__________ describes the strategy of delegating a policy program to a lower level of government.

Devolution

Why was Massachusetts's decision to recognize gay and lesbian marriages such a controversial issue of federalism?

The Constitution requires all states to honor and recognize the official acts of other states.

What was the overall importance of the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland?

The Court interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers

During the era of dual federalism, what was the primary goal of the federal government's domestic policies?

to assist the development of commercial activity within and between the states

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 has increased the level of federal involvement in public education

True

The source of an implied power under the Constitution is the _________ clause.

necessary and proper

The New Deal led to the weakening of the national government's powers.

False

The federal system can be best defined as

a system of government in which power is divided between a national government and lower levels of government.

Federal officials seeking to give state governments more authority are most likely to support

block grants.

What is the main purpose behind the privileges and immunities clause of Article IV?

It prevents a state from discriminating against nonresidents.

When both state and national governments possess a certain level of authority, it is called

a concurrent power.

Why were local governments important during the early years of the Republic?

State administration was often weak.

How has the structure of federalism made way for the longevity of the U.S. government?

It has allowed states to develop in numerous and different ways.
It has allowed for many divisive policy decisions to be made by states, rather than the national government.
It has kept the national government small and aloof throughout most of America's history.

Which of the following forms of speech are given the highest level of protection by the Supreme Court?

political sedition

Which provision of the Bill of Rights has not been nationalized?

All civil liberties have been nationalized

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) and Roe v. Wade (1973) have been extremely important in the development of

a constitutional right to privacy.

Which of the following is the best description of the Supreme Court's first ruling on the issue of the nationalization of the Bill of Rights in 1833?

The Bill of Rights limits the national government but not state governments.

The Bill of Rights

is the first ten amendments to the Constitution.

Which of the following would not be an example of speech plus?

assassinating a political leader

The famous Miranda rule was recently overturned by the Supreme Court.

False

The takings clause states that the government may not take private property

without just compensation.

The Bill of Rights was written because

the Antifederalists demanded it as the price of ratification of the Constitution.

The controversy over suspicionless drug tests at school and in the workplace pits the government's war on drugs against the right

to privacy from unwarranted searches.

A woman's constitutional right to an abortion was established in

Roe v. Wade (1973).

The procedural restraints found in the Bill of Rights

define how the government is supposed to act.

Roe v. Wade prohibits states from making abortions illegal based on the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

False

The Bill of Rights was ratified by the states in

1791

The Supreme Court has ruled that the Second Amendment protects private militias.

False

The right to legal counsel in a criminal proceeding is guaranteed by the

Sixth Amendment.

Why is Palko v. Connecticut an important case?

The Supreme Court explained the process for determining which parts of the Bill of Rights would protect individuals against states, as well as the national government.

Which of the following rights has never been incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment?

right to bear arms

What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?

laws passed in the 1790s that made it a crime to say or publish anything that would defame the government of the United States

The Supreme Court formally articulated the right to privacy in a case involving

access to birth control.

The issue of representation, which threatened to wreck the entire Constitutional Convention, was resolved by the Great Compromise, also called the

Connecticut Compromise.

Why is Palko v. Connecticut an important case?

The Supreme Court explained the process for determining which parts of the Bill of Rights would protect individuals against states, as well as the national government.

What was the primary goal of the Constitution's framers?

to create an effective government

What was the most common form of taxation during the colonial era?

taxes on commercial products and activities

What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?

laws passed in the 1790s that made it a crime to say or publish anything that would defame the government of the United States

"One person, one vote" reflects the principle of:

political equality.

On the subject of representation, Antifederalists wanted

representative bodies that resembled those represented to the highest degree possible.

The Tenth Amendment of the United States Constitution addresses

reserved powers.

According to the text, the writing of the Constitution demonstrates the

marriage of interests and principles.

When Alaska passed a law in the 1970s that gave state residents preference over nonresidents in obtaining work on oil pipelines, this law violated the

privileges and immunities clause

In American political culture, economic freedom means:

laissez-faire capitalism.

The first modern free speech cases arose during World War I.

False

During most of the nineteenth century, Congress used its powers to __________ commerce.

facilitate

If a state grants a city the ability to govern its own local affairs, this delegation of power is known as

home rule.

It is unconstitutional to burn the American flag.

False

The right of each citizen to vote is an example of:

political equality.

What was the main reason that Alexander Hamilton did not want a bill of rights?

He believed it was unnecessary for a government that possessed only specifically delegated powers.

The requirement that persons under arrest be informed of their right to remain silent is known as the __________ rule.

Miranda

Unfunded mandate refers to the national government imposing regulatory costs on the states without reimbursement

True

The system of shared powers, divided between a central government and the states, is called

federalism

The Antifederalists argued that the powers of government should be limited by

both confining the powers of the federal government to certain narrowly defined areas, and adding a bill of rights to the Constitution.

Who described politics as "who gets what, when, and how"?

Harold Lasswell

Which nation does not have a strong federal system?

France

Which statement best describes the Supreme Court's trend in interpreting federalism since the mid-1990s?

The Court has limited the power of the national government over the state governments.

Which Supreme Court case has not limited federal power?

Gibbons v. Ogden

The powers of Congress under the Constitution are __________ those of Congress under the Articles of Confederation.

greater than

The ability of the president to veto a bill passed by Congress is a good example of what principle of limited government?

checks and balances

The Antifederalists wanted a stronger central government than that proposed in the Constitution.

False

The Declaration of Independence was the United States' first governing constitution.

True

The Boston Tea Party started as a reaction to the British imposing an embargo of tea and coffee trade on the colonies

False

The Federalists believed that the threat of tyranny was most likely to be found in the popular majorities, rather than in a handful of aristocratic persons.

True

How was power in Congress divided under the Articles of Confederation?

Each state had an equal vote.

The Constitution's Preamble, beginning with the words "We the People . . . ," is an indication of what principle?

popular sovereignty

Colonial protesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famous political slogan?

"No taxation without representation."

The framers of the Constitution attempted to create a government that could do all of the following except

lead to the eventual inclusion of nonwhites in political life.

The procedural restraints found in the Bill of Rights

define how the government is supposed to act.

According to the textbook, which of the following is not one of the core American political values?

Socialism

In criminal cases, the burden of proof lies with the

government prosecutor.

Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the states and the federal government can be best compared to

the United Nations' relationship with member states.

Political rights are a protection against:

the tyranny of the majority.

Which level of government is not mentioned at all in the Constitution?

city government

Voting is the building block of American citizenship.

True

Since the New Deal, the Supreme Court has never restricted Congress's power under the commerce clause.

False

Using block grants to return power to states was part of the Nixon and Reagan administrations'

New Federalism

The framers' theory of the separation of powers was influenced by Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws.

True

The essential dilemma of a limited government raised by the ratification debates is that

a government too weak to do harm also cannot do good.

The specific powers granted to the national government in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution are called the

implied powers.

A woman's constitutional right to an abortion was established in

Roe v. Wade (1973).

Over the course of American history, the federal government has grown __________ compared to the states.

stronger

The Constitution expressly gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review over Congress and the president

False

In dealing with the issue of gays in the military, President Bill Clinton established a

"don't ask, don't tell" policy.

Which of the following people is most associated with the abolitionist movement?

William Lloyd Garrison

At what level of scrutiny do courts review cases involving gender discrimination?

intermediate scrutiny

The constitutional authority of Congress to forbid discrimination in employment is based on the

power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.

The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees

the right to vote for African American men.

Ten years after Brown v. Board of Education, __________ percent of black children in the Deep South attended school with white children.

1

Which of the following practices was explicitly protected by the "separate but equal" principle?

segregated schools

The attempt to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment was an important political struggle for

women.

Desegregating schools in the northern states proved to be very difficult because

segregation in the North was generally de facto, the product of both segregated housing and acts of private discrimination that were hard to prove.

Which of the following best summarizes the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education?

Racially segregated schools can never be equal.

What does the term Jim Crow refer to?

the system of racial segregation in the South after Reconstruction

Which city was the setting for a major racial confrontation concerning school busing?

Boston

In Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court

struck down a state law criminalizing homosexual conduct.

The Supreme Court case Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) is important because it

asserted that monetary damages could not be awarded for acts of gender discrimination in education.

What best explains the increased attention the federal government paid to the problem of racial discrimination during the 1940s?

Northern migration of African Americans increased their voting strength.

In 2007, the federal government passed major new immigration legislation.

False

What was the Supreme Court's response to the Civil Rights Act of 1875?

It declared the act unconstitutional because it protected against acts of private discrimination, not state discrimination.

What did the Thirteenth Amendment accomplish?

It abolished slavery.

What did the Supreme Court rule in Bowers v. Hardwick?

There was no constitutional right to privacy for consensual homosexual activity.

Which of the following is not the name of a Latino civil rights organization?

NOW

In a 2007 poll, what percentage of Americans believed that gays should have equal rights in terms of job opportunities?

89 percent

While an individual's underlying beliefs help shape his opinions on particular issues, two other important factors are

one's knowledge of political issues and the outside influences affecting that person's views.

Which of the following best characterizes the relationship between the Clinton White House and public opinion polls?

Clinton relied heavily on public opinion polling to determine which positions to adopt.

Why are groups and associations so critical to the formation of political opinions?

Individuals often consciously or unconsciously adopt the views of groups they identify with.

Which of the following is not an organization committed to developing and marketing conservative ideas and policies?

Common Cause

Question formats can cause errors in polling that affect the polls'

validity.

An important reason for why public policy and public opinion may not coincide in the United States is that

the American system of government includes arrangements, such as an appointed judiciary, which may produce policy decisions that run contrary to prevailing popular sentiment.

Conservatives are more likely than liberals to support

the status quo, the traditional family, and the military

What is an initiative?

A procedure that allows for laws to be placed on a ballot and voted on by the electorate.

Political ideologies can be best understood as

open and fluid sets of general characteristics.

Under the United States' political system, public policy will always coincide with the state of public opinion.

False

Political ideologies do not always provide us with a clear opinion on particular policies.

True

Calling randomly selected phone numbers is a good way for pollsters to reduce sampling errors

True

Less than 50 percent of Americans support free speech

False

What did James Madison identify as the greatest source of political conflict for the United States?

differences between the rich and the poor

If I decide to support a candidate because I see that he or she is the frontrunner in a poll, I become an example of

the bandwagon effect.

The illusion of saliency can give politicians the mistaken impression that certain opinions are very important to people.

True

The failure of major pollsters to predict Jesse Ventura's 1998 victory in Minnesota's gubernatorial election demonstrates that

researchers polled only people who had voted before, ignoring potential new voters.

The United States is a nation without political ideologies.

False

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