Special Senses A&P Chapter 15

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Special Senses A&P Chapter 15

Emmetropia

Normal vision.

Myopia

Nearsighted.

Hyperopia

Farsighted.

Anosmia

Loss of smell sensation.

Tinnitus

Ringing sound in the ears.

Cochlea

Organ of Corti.

Cataract

Lens opacity.

Vitreous humor

Posterior segment of eye.

Choroid

Vascular tunic.

Papillae

Taste buds

Sweet tastes

Carbohydrates, sugars.

Sour tastes

Acids.

Bitter tastes

Alkaloids, poisons.

Salty tastes

Metal ions.

Chorda tympani

Transmits taste sensations from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Transmits taste sensations from posterior 1/3 of the tongue.

Vagus nerve

Transmits taste sensations from epiglottis & pharynx.

Olfactory nerve

Transmits sensations of smell to the frontal lobes.

Lacrimal glands

Secretes tears onto surface of the eye.

Nasolacrimal duct

Drains tears into the nasal cavity from the lacrimal sac.

Lacrimal sac

Drains tears from the lacrimal canaliculi.

Lacrimal secretions

Dilute saline solution containing lysozymes that destroy bacteria.

Superior rectus muscle

Moves eyeball upward.

Medial rectus muscle

Adducts or moves the eyeball toward the nose.

Inferior rectus muscle

Moves the eyeball downward.

Inferior oblique muscle

Elevates the eyeball & rotates it laterally.

Lateral rectus muscle

Abducts; moves the eyeball toward the lateral edge of the orbit.

Abducens nerve

Lateral rectus muscle.

Optic nerve

Sense of vision.

Oculomotor nerve

Controls superior, inferior, & medial rectus muscles & inferior oblique muscles.

Trochlear nerve

Superior oblique muscle.

Sclera

White of the eye.

Cornea

Clear expansion of fibrous tunic.

Choroid

Blood vessel laden component of the vascular tunic.

Retina

Contains the pigemented & sensory layers.

Blind spot/optic disc

Region where the optic nerve leaves the retina.

Fovea centralis

Region of greastest visual acuity.

Rods

Dim light & peripheral vision receptors.

Cones

High acuity & color vision receptors.

Pupil

Opening in lens that permits light into inner chambers of the eye.

Iris

Colored portion of vascular tunic.

Lens

Biconcave structure that changes shape to bring objects into focus.

Vitreous humor

Thick, jelly-like substance in the posterior compartment of the eye.

Aqueous humor

Clear, plasma-like substance that baths the lens & cornea.

Rods

Utilize the pigment rhodopsin.

Light adaption

Occurs when you go from a dimly lit area to a brightly lit area.

Dark adaption

Occurs when you move from a brightly lit area to a dimly lit area.

Tympanic membrane

Eardrum.

Oval window

Transmits vibrations into the inner ear.

Round window

Opening from the inner ear into the middle ear.

Auditory tube

Connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx.

Semicircular canals

Evaluates rotational motion.

Vestiblule

Responds to gravity & movement of the head.

Cochlea

Spiral organ of Corti.

Endolymph

Fluid found within the organ of Corti.

Perilymph

Fluid found in the scal vesitbule & scala tympani.

Pitch

Frequency of a sound.

Quality

Sound that is a mixture of several frequencies.

Amplitude

The height of intensity of a sound wave.

Decibel

Logarithmic measure of the loudness of a sound.

Conduction deafness

When sound conduction to the fluid of the inner ear is impeded.

Sensorineural deafness

Can be caused by damage to the receptors in the cochlea or brain damage in the auditory regions.

Meniere's syndrome

Disorder that affects the semicircular canals & cochlea that lads to attacks of vertigo & nausea often accompanied by tinnitus.

Vision

Photoreceptors.

Hearing

Mechanoreceptors.

Taste

Chemoreceptors.

Vision

Retina.

Balance

Vestibule.

Hearing

Cochlea.

Taste

Tongue.

Smell

Nose.

Receptors for taste & smell

Chemoreceptors.

Anosmia

Caused by deficiency of zinc.

Conjunctival mucous membrane covers

Both inner surface of eyelids & visible portion of the sclera.

Medial rectus

Function is horizontal rotation of eyeball toward the nose.

Ampulla of semicircular canals

Houses the receptors that monitor angular movements of the head.

Tunics of wall of eyeball sequence from inside out

Retina, choroid, sclera.

Sequence of correct passage of light entering the cornea

Cornea, anterior segment, pupil, lens, posterior segment.

Where is the organ of Corti found?

Cochlea.

Type of stimulation that result in increase in diameter of pupils

Sympathetic nerves

Near point of vision is shortest

In children.

Tiny skeletal muscles associated with the ossicles of the middle ear function to

Protect the hearing receptors from loud sounds.

Where are receptors for sound reception & equilibrium located?

Inner ear cavity within the bony labyrinth.

Where the optic nerve leaves the eye

the blind spot on the retina.

Pharyngotympanic tube

Allows equilibrium of air pressure between the middle ear & outside air.

When focusing on a distant object the lens is

More flattened.

70% of sensory receptors in the body are involved

Sight.

Strabimus

Congential weakness of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.

Our eyes are best adapted for

Distant vision.

99% of refractive problems in the eye are related to

Length of the eyeball.

Retinis pigmentosa

Disease of the rods that occur when the pigment epithelial cells are unable to recycle the tips of the rods as they are sloughed off.

Olfactory receptors

One of the few types that can regenerate themselves in adult life.

Bleaching of pigment

Refers to the process of breaking down the retinal-opsin combinations that form rhodopsin found in rods & cones.

When one moves from a well lit room to a dark room

The retina becomes more sensitive.

What is the only special sense not fully functional at birth?

Vision.

Glutamate

Neurotransmitter involved in hearing in the inner ear.

Eyeballs rotate downward

The muscle is inserted to the inferior surface of the eyeball and it rotated the eye up & laterally.

Circular & radial muscles of the iris

Reflexively contract & control the diameter of the pupil.

Rods

Adapted for dim light and peripheral vision.

Fovea centralis

High cone density & is focus of acute vision.

What is the malleus attached to?

The tympanic membrane & to the incus.

High-frequency wave

Stimulate receptors closer to the oval window.

Low-frequency waves

Stimulte the receptors in the organ of Corti further away from the oval window.

Auditory tube

Connects to the nasopharynx & allows for pressure equalization.

Semicicular canals

Respond to rotational movements of the head.

Radial muscles

Dilate the pupils of th eyes.

Dim light & peripheral vision receptors

Rods.

Correct order of light transmission from air to the retina.

Air, cornea, aquenous humor, lens, vitreous humor, retina.

Adjustments to low light conditions

Primarily facilitated by changes in rhodopsin concentration.

Olfactory epithelium

Located in the roof of the nasal cavity.

Events that occur during sound transmission.

Tympanic membranes vibrates; internal ear fluids are set in motion; hearing receptors are stimulated; ossicles of the ear vibrate; auditory cortes is stimulated.

Tinnitus

One of the first signs of cochlear nerve damage.

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