Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment

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Chapter 12 7th edition Psychology Themes and Variations Wayne Weiten

Archetypes

Emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.

Behaviorism

A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior

Collective unconscious

A storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past

Collectivism

Involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to

Compensation

Involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities

Conscious

Consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time

Defense mechanisms

Largely unconsciuos reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt

Displacement

Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target

Ego

The decision- making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle

Extraverts

Tend to be interested in the external world of people and things

Factor analysis

Correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables

Fixation

A failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected

Hierarchy of needs

A systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused

Hindsight bias

The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out

Humanism

A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth

Id

The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle

Identification

Bolstering self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group

Incongruence

The degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience

Individualism

Involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships

Introverts

Tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences

Model

A person whose behavior is observed by another

Need for self-actualization

Which is the need to fulfill one's potential

Observational learning

Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models

Oedipal complex

Children manifest eroticall tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompained by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent

Personal unconscious

houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten

Personality

Refers to an individual unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits

Personality traits

A durable disposition to behav in a particular way in a variety of situations

Phenomenological approach

Assumes that one has to appreciate individuals' personal. subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior

Pleasure principle

Demends immediate gratification of its urges

Preconscious

Contains material just beneath the surface of awarenes that can easily be retrieved

Projection

Attributing one's own thoughts,feelings, or motives to another

Projection tests

Ask participants to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects' needs, feelings, and personality traits

Psychodynamic theories

Include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces

Psychosexual stages

Development periods with a characteristics sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality

Rationalization

Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable bahvior

Reaction formation

Behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings

Reality principle

Seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found

Reciprocal determinism

The idea that internal mental events, external envrionmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another

Regression

A reversion to immature patterns of behavior

Repression

Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious

Self- actualzing persons

People with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth

Self- concept

A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior

Self-efficacy

Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes

Self- report inventories

Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior

Striving for superiority

As a universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges

Superego

The moral component of personality that incoporates social standards about what represents right and wrong

Unconscious

Contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior

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