The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life. Usually unstated in fictional works, but in nonfiction may be directly stated, especially in expository or argumentative writing. *3 M's message, moral, meaning.
Anything that represents, stands for, something else. Usually concrete—such as an object, action, character, or scene—that represents something more abstract.
the opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended.
a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion. A=B, B=C, so A=C. "All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal."
The grammatical structure of prose and poetry.
The sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition.
describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both. Differs from mood in that it is how the author feels, which may be different from how the work feels.
Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words, speeds up flow of sentence. X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z.
Deliberate use of many conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted. Hemingway and the Bible both use extensively. Ex. "he ran and jumped and laughed for joy"
In modern usage, intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights. Usually uses terse language that makes a pointed statement.
a word or phrase that links one idea to the next and carries the reader from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph.
the word or clauses that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes, the subject of the sentence by either renaming it or describing it.
this word group contains both a subject and a verb and cannot stand alone; it does not express a complete thought.
an attitude that may lie under the ostensible tone of the piece. Under a cheery surface, a work may have threatening undertones.
sequence of sentences that lack subordination. connector words are and, but, nor, or, so, yet, for
use of subordinate phrases and clauses. one in which temporal, logical, and synthetic relations between members and sentences are expressed by words like "when" "then" " because" "therefore" "in order to" and "as a result"
part for whole
repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause
repetition at the end of successive clauses
a trope; one word usually a noun or main verb governs two other words not related in meaning
An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, sentence struture, tone, imagery, and other literary devices. DITS
words like: after, before, then, next, moreover, furthermore, consequently, nevertheless, for example, in addition, likewise, similarly and on the contrary