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figure of speech

saying one thing in terms of another

simile

a comparison between two things using words such as "like," "as," "than," "appears," "seems"
ex) her coffee is as strong as Starbucks

metaphor

an implicit comparison between two unlike things
ex) her coffee is a punch in the stomach

implied metaphor

a metaphor that does not explicitly compare two unlike things
ex) He brayed his refusal to leave (compare a mule to a man)

extended metaphor

when part or all of a work consists of a series of related metaphors

controlling metaphor

the metaphor(s) at work throughout an entire work

pun

play on words, one words has two meanings or connotations
ex) a fad is in one era and out the other

synecdoche

part of something is used to signify the whole, or the whole is used to signify the part
ex) a neighbor is a wagging tongue (tongue relays dog)
ex) Princeton won the fencing match (not all of princeton participated

metonymy

when something closely associated with a subject is substituted for it
ex) at 10 a.m. the paper shufflers stopped for coffee (paper shufflers = office workers)

personification

the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman things

apostrophe

an address either to someone who is absent, or to something nonhuman

hyperbole

an overstatement, exaggeration, emphasis without intending it to be literally true
ex) the teenage boy ate everything in the house

understatement

saying less than is intended

paradox

a statement that initially appears to be self-contradictory but, with closer inspection, turns out to make sense
ex) the pen is mightier than the sword

oxymoron

when two contradictory words are used together
ex) sweet sorrow, silent scream

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