deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
did study in which healthy patients were admitted to psychiatric hospitals and diagnoses with schizophrenia; showed that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, the label, even when behavior indicates otherwise, is hard to overcome in a mental health setting
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an updated "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
catalog of human strengths, and positive thinking-feeling-action tendencies
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying
irrational fears of specific objects or situations.
fear of open spaces
fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation
obsessive compulsive disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/ or actions (compulsions).
post traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
Dissociative disorder characterized by the sudden and extensive inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature.
disorder in which one travels away from home and is unable to remember details of his past, including often his identity
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
A chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to merit diagnosis of a major depressive episode.
mood disorder characterized by a chronic pattern of relatively mild mood swings
seasonal affective disorder
Controversial disorder in which a person experiences depression during winter months and improved mood during spring. Can be treated using phototherapy, using bright light and high levels of negative ions.
self defeating belief
learned helplessness - over-thinking
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
Lack of emotional response; no expression of feelings; voice monotonous and face immobile. ex// topic varies, expression does not
A type of schizophrenia that is dominated by delusions of persecution along with delusions of grandeur.
type of schizophrenia characterized by severely disturbed thought processes, frequent incoherence, disorganized behavior, and inappropriate affect; disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion
A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.
a schizophrenic disorder that is characterized by a mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria of any one type.
withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
Theory that schizophrenia is caused by an excess amount of dopamine in brain. Research has found that medication to reduce dopamine can reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
avoidant personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by inhibition in social situations; feelings of inadequacy; oversensitivity to criticism
schizoid personality disorder
personality disorder in which they have no interest in relationships with other people, lack emotional responsiveness
histrionic personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
narcissistic personality disorder
characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration
conditions marked by physical symptoms that suggest an underlying medical illness, but that are actually psychological in origin
Reduces tension/anxiety through relaxation, calms nervous system, enhances well being and body awareness
the use of certain medications to treat or reduce the symptoms of a mental disorder
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
A set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
analysts noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis, the patient's giving to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
a variation of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here and now, not an overall personality change, through an examination of current relationships and the mastery of relationship skills
A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger's beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
therapy that confronts patients with what they fear with the goal of reducing the fear
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias
a technique of learning to relax by focusing on relaxing each of the body's muscle groups in turn
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
cognitive behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines changing self-defeating thinking with changing behavior
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
provides a way of statistically combining the results of individual research studies to reach an overall conclusion
New treatment for PTSD, client imagines the traumatic event and processes it in a non-threatening manner., while peole imagined traumatic scence, shapiro triggered eye movements by waving her finger in front of their eyes, supposedly enabling them to unlock and reprocess previously frozen trauma memories
light exposure therapy
Treats seasonal affective disorder (SAD); scientifically proven to be effective, exposure to daily doses of intense light. Increases activity in the adrenal gland and the superchiasmatic nucleus.
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
rational emotive behavior therapy
treatment where illogical self defeating thoughts are identified and the client is helped to replace them with more realistic and beneficial ones
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors
loss of memories that were stored before a traumatic event
Inability to store new memories after a traumatic event
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
virtual reality therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking