the reallocation of seats in a legislative assembly
the process of creatively designing a legistlative district, usually to enhance the electoral fortunes of the party in power.
landmark supreme court case in which the court said that reapportionment is not a political question, and can be reviewed by the court, thus making reynolds v. simms possible
Baker v. Carr
ruled that state legislature districts had to be roughly equal in population. Established the principle of "one person, one vote."
Reynolds v. Sims
a legislator who functions as a conduit for his constituency opinion
a legislator who votes according to his or her conscience and best judgment
a legislator who functions as either a delegate or a trustee as circumstances dictate
perfunctory duties, record keeping and election responsibilities, maintains state archives, registers drivers' licenses, files agency rules, etc.
Secretary of State
The state's chief legal cousel, renders formal written opinions on legal issues which have the force of law unless they are successfully challenged in the courtroom.
the administrative branch of government, consisting of all executive offices and their workers.
the ability of public employees to make decisions interpreting law and administrative regulations
the concept that public employees should perform their duties competently and without regard for political considerations
The organization of government personnel to provide for hiring and promotion on the basis of knowledge skills and abilities rather than patronage or other influences
Special effort to recruit, hire and promote members of disadvantaged groups to eliminate the effects of past discrimination
a formal arrangement in which representatives of labor and management negotiate wages, benefits, and working conditions.
A system in which more than one member of the executive branch is popularly elected on a statewide ballot. Ex) in VA, you vote separately for governor, attorney general, lt. governor
preparation, formulation, adoption, execution and audit
a budget that plans large expenditures for long term investments such as buildings and highways
a decision making approach in the budgetary process in which last years appropriations are used as a base for this years budget figures
statutes that set automatic expiration dates for specified agencies and other organizations
Powers of the governor derived from the state constitution or statute
Formal powers of governors
powers of the governor not derived from the consitutional or statutory law
Informal powers of governors
a rule, regulation, or policy issued unilaterally by the governor to change executive branch operations or activities
The governors formal power to veto separate items in a bill instead of the entire piece of proposed legislation
Line Item Veto
The use of information technology to simplify and improve interactions between governments and citizens, firms, public employees, and other entities
Starting in the 1990's most states set up term limits for their legislators, but not on federal legislators.
Statutes that open the meetings of governmental bodies to the public
Open Meeting Laws
Unwritten law based on tradition, custom or court decisions
Negotiation between a prosecutor and a criminal defendents counsel that results in the defendent pleading guilty to a lesser charge or pleading guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence.
Legislation election in two states (SC and VA), popular election, 87% of states, through a partisan or non partisan election but there is a very small voter turnout. Merit Plan including a judicial nominating commission which puts up names of which the governor appoints the preferred candidate and finally a retention election is held after one or two years in which a popular vote is taken on whether or not the judge should stay on the bench.
Selection of Judges
limited jurisdiction trial courts (those courts with original jurisdiction over specialized cases such as juvenile offenses or traffic violations.
hierarchy of courts
courts of general jurisdiction that handle criminal and civil cases
Major Trial Courts
a state appellate court that relieves the case burden on the supreme court by hearing certain types of appeals
intermediate appellate courts
the highest state court, beyond which there is no appeal except in cases involving federal law
judges making of public policy through decisions that overturn existing law or effectively make new laws.
a case that concerns a grievance involving individuals or organizations, not the breaking of a law.