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desiccation

drying out

sub-Saharan

Africa south of the Sahara

Sahel

Narrow band south of Sahara, arid but not yet desert

aquifer

underground water-bearing layer

savanna

Tropical grasslands south of Sahel

caliphate

islamic dynasty

indirect rule

british colonial governance through native hereditary rulers

divide and rule

roman and british imperial ruling method of setting subjects against each other

colonialism

gaining and exploitation of overseas territories, chiefly by Europeans, related to imperialism

pan-Africanism

movement to unite all africa

decolonization

the granting of independence to colonies

sharia

muslim religious law based on the Koran

cross-cutting cleavages

multiple splits in society that make group loyalties overlap

cumulative cleavages

reinforcing one another

cleft country

In huntington's theory, a country split by two civilizations

torn country

in huntington's theory, one with a westernizing elite but traditional masses

developmentalism

Early 1960s theory that we could evelop third world lands

praetorianism

tendency for military takeovers

patronage

giving government jobs to political supporters

strategic variable

factor you can change that makes a big improvement

policy

the specific choices governments make

macroeconomy

big picture of a nation's economy, including gdp size and growth, productivity, interest rates, and inflation

microeconomy

close-up picture of individual markets, including product design and pricing, efficiency, and costs

kickback

fee paid to government official for a contract

transparency

exchanges of money open to public scrutiny

absolute poverty

living on $1 a day or less

micro-loan

small unsecured loan (of a few hundred dollars) to beginning businesses

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