The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Differences between members of the same species.
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA.
A haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding to by the division of a single cell or he entire organism into two or more parts.
A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.
A single individual organism that is genetically identical to another organism or lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells.
A specific place along the length of a chormosome where a given gene is located.
The generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.
What are somatic cells and how many chromosomes to human somatic cells have?
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or an egg. A human somatic cell has 46 chromosomes.
A dominant allele is usually indicated by a ______ letter, and a recessive allele is indicated by the same letter that is _______ _____. The letter chosen usually represents the first letter of the trait that is _________.
A dominant allele is usually indicated by a CAPITAL letter, and a recessive allele is indicated by the same letter that is LOWER CASE. The letter chosen usually represents the first letter of the trait that is DOMINANT.
What are alleles?
Alternative versions of a gene that produces distinguishable phenotype effects.
What is the difference between the term homozygous and heterozygous?
Homozygous organisms have a pair of identical alleles. Heterozygous organisms have two different alleles for a gene.
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism. Phenotype is an organism's traits.
Why is DNA replication necessary?
To make enough DNA for cell division so daughter cells have the correct amount of DNA, genes, and chromosomes.
What are three factors that contribute to the accuracy of DNA replication?
1. Specificity of base pairing
2. Mismatch repair enzymes
3. Nucleotide and excision repair (nucleases)
What is a testcross used for?
Breeding of a recessive homozygote with an organism of dominant phenotype but unknown genotype to determine if a prospective parent is homozygous, pure breed, or heterozygous.
What are P (parental) generation, F1 (first filial) generation, and F2(second filial) generation?
1. P (parental) generation- The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance.
2. F1 (first filial) generation- The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a series of genetic crosses.
3. F2 (second filial) generation- Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
What is the difference in the way dominant alleles are expressed vs. recessive alleles?
Dominant alleles determine the organisms appearance. Recessive alleles have no noticeable effect on appearance.
What is a monohybrid cross and how many squares are in the Punnett square?
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. 4 squares.
What is a dihybrid cross and how many squares are in the Punnett square?
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest. 16 squares.