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cost and profits

Computer-related waste and mistakes are major causes of computer problems, contributing as the do to unnecessarily high _______ and lost _________

Computer waste

Involves the inappropriate use of computer technology and resources.

Computer-related mistakes

Errors, failures, and other computer problems that make computer output incorrect or not useful; most of these are caused by human error.

The US Government

The largest single user of information systems in the world. Generates more waste than other organizations.

Spam

Messages that often carry attached files with embedded viruses that can cause networks and computers to crash or allow hackers to gain unauthorized access to system data.

CAN-SPAM Act

Allows the sending of most e-mail spam as long as it adheres to three basic forms of compliance related to how receivers can unsubscribe, content of the e-mail, and the sending behavior.

Spam filter

A software that attempts to block unwanted e-mail. Many e-mail programs have built-in ____ _______

Image-based spam

New tactic spammers use to circumvent spam-filtering software that rejects e-mail based on the content of messages and the use of keywords. The message is presented in a graphic form that can be read by people bu not computers.

Computers rarely make mistakes

Despite many people's distrust of them, _______

access and knowledge to manipulate

Two capabilities criminals need to commit most computer crimes.

Social Engineering

Using social skills to get computer users to provide information that allows hackers to access and information system or its data.

Dumpster diving

Going through the trash cans of an organization to find secret or confidential information, including information needed to access and information system or its data.

Cyberterrorist

Someone who intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his political or social objectives by launching computer-based attacks against computers, networks, and the information stored on them.

Identity theft

A crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of personal identification information, such as social security or driver's license numbers, to impersonate someone else.

Hacker

A person who enjoys computer technology and spends time learning and using computer systems.

Criminal Hacker

A computer-savvy person who attempts to gain unauthorized or illegal access to computer systems to steal passwords, corrupt files and programs, or even transfer money.

Script bunny

A cracker with little technical savvy who downloads programs called scripts, which automate the job of breaking into computers.

Insider

An employee, disgruntled or otherwise, working solo or in concert with outsiders to compromise corporate systems. The biggest threat for many companies is not external hackers, but their own employees.

Malware

Logic bombs, Rootkits, Trojan horses, Variants, Viruses, Worms.

Logic Bomb

A type of trojan horse that executes when specific conditions occur. Triggers for _____ _____ can include a change in a file by a particular series of keystrokes or at a specific time or date.

Rootkit

A set of programs that enables its user to gain administrator level access to a computer or network. Once installed, the attacker can gain full control of the system and even obscure the presence of the _______ from legitimate system administrators.

Trojan Horse

A malicious program that disguises itself as a useful application or game and purposefully does something the user does not expect.

Variant

A modifies version of a virus that is produced by the virus's author or another person by amending the original virus code.

Virus

Computer program file capable of attaching to disks or other files and replicating itself repeatedly, typically without the user's knowledge or permission.

Worm

Parasitic computer program that replicated, but unlike viruses, does not infect other computer program files. A ____ can send the copies to other computers via a network.

Spyware

Software that is installed on a personal computer to intercept or take partial control over the user's interaction with the computer without knowledge or permission of the user.

Password sniffer

A small program hidden in a network or a computer system that records identification system that records identification numbers and passwords.

disk-wiping software utilities

Overwrite all sectors of your disk drive, making all data unrecoverable.

Intellectual Property

Works of the mind, such as art, books, films, formulas, inventions, music, and processes that are distinct and "owned" or created by a single person or group.

Copyright

Protects authored works such as art, books, film, and music.

Patent

Protects processes, machines, objects made by humans or machines, compositions of matter, and new uses or these items.

Software

Considered intellectual property and may be protected by copyright or patent law.

Software piracy

The act of unauthorized copying or distribution of copyrighted software.

Phising

The act of trying to gain access to customers' private information, by faking a Web site.

Vishing

Uses phones, sending notice or message to call to verify account information.

Money laundering

The practice of disguising illegally gained funds so that they seem legal.

Encryption Devices

Can be used to encode data and information to help precent unauthorized use.

IDS (intrusion detection system)

Software that monitors system and network resources and notifies network security personnel when it senses a possible intrusion. When they detect an apparent attack, ___ send an alarm, often by e-mail or pager, to network security personnel.

Security Dashboard

Software that provides a comprehensive display on a single computer screen of all the vital data related to an organization's security defenses, including threats, exposures, policy compliance and incident alerts. Can provide a snapshot of the data needed to identify and respond to security incidents immediately.

MSSP (Managed Security Service Providers)

Companies can outsource their network security operations to these.

Antivirus Program

Software that runs in the background of your computer to preotect your computer from dangers lurking on the Internet and other possible sources of infected files.

RFID tags

Microchips with antenna, embedded in many of the products we buy. They generate radio transmissions.

P3P (Platform for Privacy Preferences)

A screening technology in Web browsers that shields users from Web sites that don't provide the level of privacy protection the desire.

Libel

Involves publishing an intentionally false written statement that is damaging to a person's or organization's reputation.

John Doe Lawsuit

Using the subpoena power it grants to force the ISP to provide whatever information they have about the anonymous poster, including IP address, name, and street address.

Filtering Software

Helps screen internet content, can also prevent children from sending personal information over e-mail or through chat groups.

Content label

a short piece of computer code that authors can add to their site, informing what sort of site it is.

PA74

Applies to all federal agencies except for the CIA and law enforcement agencies.

Sedentary job

A job that requires sitting at a desk and using a computer for many hours a day.

SIT (seated immobility thromboemlism)

The formation of blood clots in the legs or lungs.

CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome)

an aggravation of the pathway for the nerves that travel through the wrist. This involves wrist pain, a feeling of tingling and numbness, and difficulty grasping a holding objects. NOT caused by typing on a keyboard.

Work Stressors

Hazardous activities associated with unfavorable conditions. Repetitive motion, awkward posture, and eye strain can cause more serious long-term injuries. Can limit productivity and performance.

Ergonomics

the science of designing machines, products, and systems to maximize the safety, comfort, and efficiency of the people who use them.

RSI (repetitive stress injury)

Caused by overuse of the computer through repeated movements that affect muscles, tendons, or nerves in the arms, hands, or upper back.

Code of Ethics

A code that states the principles and core values that are essential to a set of people and that therefore govern their behavior.

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