AP Euro Unit 13 Terms

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Konrad Adenauer

first chancellor of united West Germany by free elections

Willy Brandt

Social Democrat leader of West Germany. Osopolitik

Brezhnez Doctrine

after Prauge Spring, announcement whereby a percieved threat to socialism in one nation is taken as a threat to socialism everywhere.

Chinese Nationalists

group of Chinese in favor of a powerful united china during their revolution. nationalists.

brinkmanship

the practice of seeking advantage by creating the impression that one is willing and able to push a highly dangerous situation to the limit. political practice.

COMECON

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance - created by Soviet Union. To create a buffer against W. Europe with their satelite states. Took all the resources from satelite states to benefit Soviet economy.

The Marshall Plan

offer $20 bill for relief of European economic slump. Helped single out who stick to communism and those who are willing to recover. Aid that the SU prohibited thier satellites from accepting, viewed it as a capitalist plot aimed against Soviet sphere.

Truman Doctrine

Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.

Cominform

info agencry dissovled in 1956. members were the Communist parties of Bulgaria, Czech, France, Hungary, Italy, Polan, Romanis, SU, and Tugo. The Cominform attempted to reestablish information exchanges among the European Communist parties. Make NATO feel threatened.

Containment

the US's attempt to 'contain' the spread of communism, which is 'infecting' major powers and small nations worldwide

De-Stalinization

social process of neutralizing hte influence of Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor, his statue demolished

Khrushcev's secret speech

Khrushcev gives "secret speech" to 20th party Congress of the Communist Party of SU condemning the excess of Stalin period. Secret because it was unofficial not open to the public.

Economic miracle

how amazing it was that European community got underway again after the world wars (mainly W. Europe)

European Coal and Steel Community

member nations of ECSC pledged to pool their coal and steel resources by providing a unified market for coal and steel products, lifting restrictions on imports and exports, created a unified labor market

European Economic Community

aka the Common Market. France, W. Germany, and the Belelux countries created EEC, which eliminated customs barriers for the 6 nations. EEC also encouraged cooperation and standardization of many spects of the six nations economies

Hungarian revolt 1956

Imry Nagy was elected to be new ruler, but internal dissent against communism created hatred. That and economic difficulties created a situation for revolt. Nagy declared a free nation, made Khrushchev happy, 3 days later Red Army invaded and Soviets re-established control

Czech revolt 1968

In Jan 1968, Alexander Dubcek introduced a number of reforms - freedom of speech and press, freedom to travel abroad. became known s the "Prague Spring", but in Aug Red Army invaded and crushed the reforms

"Inner Six"

six countries that were involved in the EEC, ECSC. France, W. Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.

Iron Curtain Speech

1946 from P.M. Churchill declared that an 'iron curtain' had descended across the continent. divided Germany and Europe into two hostile camps.

Khrushchev

took control after STalin was responsible for many showdowns like his ultimatum of West Berlina nd the Cuban Missile Crisis; was unable to hold his ground and backed down in all of these conflicts.

Jan Masaryk

diplomat, ambassador, Czech foreign minister was son of first president of Czech. Known for defending the democratic ideals.

Berlin Blockade

W. Berlin became very prosperous and many of the poverty-stricken E. Germans tried to escape there. Khrushchev ordered for a blockade into the area; ordered all roads be closed to W. Berlin. Later Berlin Wall was put up.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

aka NATO. formed in 1949: Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal signed treaty w/ US and Canada. all agreed to provide mutual assistance in case of attack. later W. Germany, Greece and Turkey joined.

Warsaw Pact

was formed in the Soviet's response to NATO. 1955 signed by Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, E. Germany, hungary, Poland, Romania and USSR.

Imre Nagy

leader of Hungary, sent against communism in general. Nagy declared hungary to have free elections, when Stalin heard he sent Red Army and established control.

Alexander Dubcek

secretary oof Communist party in Czech. Made reforms: freedom of speech, press, and to travel abroad.

Ospolitik

political philosophy of Willy Brandt, leader of Germany. Means "opening towards the east".

Peaceful Co-existence

when Russia and US wished to occupy German territory together in which they divided up Germany

Cuban Missile Crisis

Soviets sent missiles to Cubs where they could hit any par of US in easter hemisphere. US blockaded Cuba until Soviets took out the weapons, which they did. higest tensions of the cold war

Mao Zedon

leader of Communist China during Korean War. Supported N. Korea's invasion of American supported S. Korea

Welfare State

Base on belief that eliminating poverty and homelessness, providing medical services for all, ensuring dignity for elderly and extending education opportunites for all that wanted them.

Youth Culture

youth began to get involved in their own futures. more kids got involved w/ higer education b/c of reduction of fees and influx of students from middle and lower classes. Student revolts in Paris 1968

SEATO/CENTO

these two treaties were used by the west to stop futher Soviet expanison in Asia. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was to prevent E. Soviet aggression. Centrall Asian treaty was to stop Soviet expansion in the countries South of the empire.

Commonwealth

A nation or state governed by the people, a republic.

Algerian War

war for Algerian independence from French. De Gaulle eventually granted Algerian independence from the dismantled French Empire

Indochina War

between North Vietnam and French. French eventually surrendered in Vietnam and Vietnam was now divided in to Communist north and Nationalist South

Berlin Wall

in 1953 a steady flight of East Germans fled to W. Germany. The loss of skilled laborers created economic problems for E. Germany that cause the gov. to build the Berlin Wall. Torn down in 1989.

Displaced Persons (DPs)

Jews and non-Jews found themselves displaced in post0war chaos of Europ. DP camps were in Germany, France, Italy and Belgium. Living conditions were poor.

Guatemala 1954

CIA sponsored a military coup in Guatemala to overthrow the second legally elected presiden, Guzman.

Central Intelligence Agency

CIA created in 1947 w/ signing of National Security Act by Truman.

Force de frappe

strike force. 1958 Gen. Charles de Gaulle was chareged w/ forming a new gov. and became President of Council of Ministers. Nuclear weapons program now had a leader. Under him the force de frappe was created.

Gaullism

Political philosophy of the views of Charles de Gaulle of France. Basic ideas are to create and preserve a centralized state and be unwilling ot enter into international obligations b/c of national interests.

Birth Control

became more common post-war era. Birth Control pills invented which helped birth rate decline after the baby boom.

Simone de Beauvoir

Participated in women's liberation movements. Wrote the "Second Sex". Believed women were forced in subordinate positions to men over time.

Betty Friedan

Wrote "Feminine Mystique". Believe women were held back from achieving thier full capacities and founded the National Organization for Women.

Sex, drugs, and music

Divorce and extramarital sex increases, pornography appeared. Marijuana and LSD became popular. New types of music. All post-war era.

ICBM's

As crisis over in GB added to Soviet tension, they relased its first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile in Aug. of 1957.

Sputnik I

World's first satellite, released by the Soviet union. Led to the technology race b/w US and the USSR

Pronatalism

Attitude or policy that encourages childbearing.

Gorbachev

Came into power in Soviet union. Brought an end to the Cold War, brought several changes to his nation. Agreement w/ US to eliminate intermediate range nuclear weapons (INF Treaty)

Gulf War

Iraq began to occupy Kuwait and eventually invaded them; sparked US action against Iraq, liberated Kuwait in 1991. First military conflict after the Cold War

War in Afghanistan

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan ends Detente and hardens US/Soviet relations. US provided military support to Afghans which created a war that SU couldn't win.

Ronald Regan

President after Carter. returned to harsh practices of Cold War, stimulated arms race through military buildup.

"New World Order"

policy proposed by the first Bush after disintegration w/ SU, but not very clear.

START Talks

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty b/w US and USSR that created a sense of external security throughout the world.

Perestroika

a reordering of economic policy in the USSR under Gorbachev.

Fall of Communism

late 80s and early 90s many nations claimed independence from USSR, which was under the rule of Gorbachev. Dec. 1991 Soviet Union no longer exist. Spelled out the end of the long lasting domination of Communism in E. Europe.

Breakup of USSR

Many nations that had formerly been part of the SU moved for complete independence. in '91 leader in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia announced that USSR no longer existed.

Solidarity

Independent labor movement in Poland that represent 10 mil of Poland's 35 mil people. The movement was stopped by the gov. inthe early 80s but eventually won out, formed a new Polsih gov. in '88

Leach Walesa

Leader of independent labor movement in Poland known as solidarity.

Janos Kadar

Soviet reform-minded cabinet member who replaced Nagy and worked to stop the revolt. Saved a lot of Nagy's economic reforms by collaborating w/ the soviet invaders.

Charter 77

An environment group from the Czech dissident who emphasized environmental damage as one of the chief crimes of communist govs.

Velvet Revolution

6 week period between Nov 17-Dec 29 1989, borught about the bloodless overthrow of the Czech communist regime

Nicolae Ceausescu

Leader of Communist gov. in Romanai, established a rigid dictorial regime. Exploited Romania and crushed the Timisorara demonstration.

Unification of Germany

With the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the collapse of the East German gov., E. and W. Germany were united into Germany, w/ no seperate govs. or internal borders.

Croat-Serb War

Milosevic was the Serbian leader who wanted to unite Yugoslavia and all the neighboring countries such as the Croats and Bosnians, so he invaded Croatia.

War in Bosnia

Milosevic's other attempt at uniting neighboring countries, invaded Bosnia to try to get them to unite.

Ethnic cleansing

Milosevic stirred criticism by giving financial and military support to Serbian minorities int he newly independent republics andby pursuing a policy of ethinc cleansing, in which he believed Serbians had the right to dominate - massacred the Croats and Bosnians

Maastricht Treaty

committed members of the previously established EC to adopt a single currency called euro and common foreign policy and defense.

Helmut Kohl

Christian democrats leader.

Margaret THatcher

British political leader. GB's first woman Prime Minister. Initiated the "Thatcher REvolution", a series of social and economic changes that dismantled many aspects of GB postwar welfare state.

Falklands War

When Argentina tried to take control of the Falkland Islands (GB colony). GB successfully fended them off.

Francois Mitterrand

Socialist leader of France

Terrorism

acts of terror by individuals and groups opposed to governments. Became increasingly popular after WWII. 9/11/01

Guest Workers

Under Adenauer, to uphold the economic expansion, W. Germany imported hundreds of thousands of 'guest workers' primarily from Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia

Greens

Due to growing ecological awareness Green movements and Green parties in Europe in 1970s

Jackson Pollock

One of the best-known painters of Abstract Expressionism. Drip paintings.

Andy Warhol

Most famous pop artist who adapted images from commercials art

Pop art

Images taken from popular culture and transformed into works fo fine aret

Anselm Kiefer

Best example of postmodern artists who made use of Abstract Expressionism (Neo-expressionism). Combined aspects of Abstract Expressionism, collage and german Expressionism.

Theater of the Absurd

Most significant new trend in postwar literature.

"Waiting for Godot"

Samuel Beckett's work that showed that the action on the state was not realistic.

Military-Industrial Complex

beginning in the Cold War ear, can be defined as a corporate empire and Armageddon. A war was used in place of culture.

John Paul II

First non-Italian elected pop1500s. Largely strengthened the role of the Catholic Church through his numerous travels around the world. Popular supporter of world peace.

Punk

Rebellious movement against set standards and philosophies.

Non-government Organizations (NGOs)

Development of these orgainzations was laregly due to the growth of an independent public movement and its aspiration for participatin in political, economic and social life.

Boris Yeltsin

President of Russia after Gorbachev resigned. Strived to transition Russia into a market (free exchange) economy.

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