Knowing how to care for someone's skin begins with what?
Understanding it's underlying structure and basic needs.
What is estimated to be only 15% responsible in determining how the skin ages?
What has the greatest impact on how the skin ages?
The sun and it's ultraviolet (UV) rays.
What two fibers naturally weaken as we age?
The ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun reach to skin in two different forms. What are they?
Also called "aging rays", these ultraviolet (UV) rays weaken the fibers within the skin. They cause wrinkling and sagging of the tissues.
Can be altered or destroyed when large, frequent doses of ultraviolet (UV) light are allowed to penetrate the skin.
Also referred to as "burning rays", these ultraviolet (UV) rays cause sunburns and tanning of the skin by affecting melanocytes.
Ultraviolet (UV) rays contribute to the body's synthesis of what?
Vitamin D and other important minerals.
What level of SPF protection should you apply to your skin each day if exposure is probable?
Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is normally the highest during what hours?
Peak hours (10:00am - 3:00pm)
How long before sun exposure is it recommended to apply sunscreen to allow for absorption?
At least 30 minutes.
To filter out UVA and UVB from the sun, all sunscreens should be what?
Full or broad spectrum.
Avoid exposing children to the sun if younger than?
6 months of age.
Individuals with what skin tones are more susceptible to sun damage?
"Redheads" and "blue-eyed blonds"
For checkups of the skin, a client should be referred to a doctor of what specialty?
When conducting a self-care exam, clients should be advised to look for what changes in the skin and it's appearance?
Changes in existing moles and new growths.
Pollutants in the air can all influence what?
The appearance and overall health of the skin.
The best method of combatting pollutants that could damage your skin is what?
Daily skin-care routine
What helps remove buildup of pollutants and dead skin cells?
Daily washing and exfoliating
These 4 things also greatly influence the aging process.
Smoking, drinking, drug abuse, poor dietary choices
Nicotine in tobacco causes what two things of the blood vessels and small capillaries that provide blood to the tissues?
Contraction and weakening.
Contraction and weakening of blood vessels and capillaries ultimately cause what to happen to the surrounding tissue?
The skin may have a dull appearance and/or appear yellowish or gray in color as a result of being deprived of what?
Heavy or excessive intake of alcohol causes what?
Overdilation of blood vessels and capillaries.
Constant overdilation of capillary walls will cause them to become what?
What is telangiectasias?
Dilation of capillaries/blood vessels.
Telangiectasias can be caused by what?
Tobacco use, sun exposure, environmental factors.
This can dehydrate the skin by drawing essential water out of the tissues which intern causes the skin to appear dull and dry.
The damage done by lifestyle habits such as smoking, consuming large amounts of alcohol and drug use are what?
Hard to reverse or diminish.
Like any other organ of the body, the skin is susceptible to a variety of what?
Diseases, disorders and ailments.
Medicinal preparations available only by prescription must be applied in accordance with what?
A physicians directions.
Whether infectious or not, it is very important that a beauty salon does not service a client with what type of ailment?
Inflamed skin disorder
A mark on the skin, classified into three types (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary).
What are the three types of lesions?
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
A cosmetologist is only concerned with two types of lesions. What are they?
You will be able to determine conditions that can or cannot be treated in a beauty salon if you are familiar with these.
A large blister containing a watery fluid; similar to a vesicle but larger.
A closed, abnormally developed sac that contains pus, fluid, semifluid, or morbid matter, above or below the skin.
A spot or discoloration on the skin such as a freckle. These are neither raised or sunken.
A pimple; small circumscribed elevation on the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus.
A small pimple containing pus.
An abnormal rounded, solid lump above, within or under the skin; larger than a papule.
A swelling; An abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive multiplication of cells, varying in size, shape and color. Nodules are also referred to as this but are smaller in size.
A small blister or sac containing clear fluid, lying within or just beneath the epidermis. Poison ivy or poison oak, for example, produce vesicles.
An itchy swollen lesion that last only lasts a few hours; caused by a blow, the bite of an insect, urticaria (skin allergy), or the sting of a nettle. Examples include hives and mosquito bites.
This type of lesion develops in the later stages of disease.
Dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing; an accumulation of sebum and pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material. An example is the scab on a sore.
A skin sore or abrasion that is produced by scratching or scraping.
A crack in the skin that penetrates the dermis. Examples are chapped hands or lips.
A thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue.
Any thin dry or oily plate of epidermal flakes. An example is abnormal or excessive dandruff.
Light-colored, slightly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed.
Scar or Cicatrix
An open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth.
A hair follicle filled with keratin and sebum.
Comedones appear most frequently in what location(s)?
When the sebum of a comedo is exposed to the environment, it oxidizes a turns black. What has this comedo become?
An open comedo (Black head)
When the sebum of a comedo is not exposed to the environment, the sebum remains a white or cream color. What has this comedo become?
A closed Comedo (White head)
Comedones should be removed using proper extraction procedures and only under what conditions?
Benign, keratin-filled cysts that appear just under the epidermis and have no visible opening.
Usually found around the eyes, cheeks and forehead, these cysts resemble sesame seeds and are almost perfectly round. Commonly associated with newborns.
A skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions and bacteria known as propionibacterium acnes.
Bacteria that causes acne.
Where does acne most frequently occur?
Face, back, and chest
Acne is also known as what?
The seriousness of acne is rated by grades ranging from?
Common pimples with comedones, typically considered minor acne. What grade of acne is this?
Cystic acne with large nodules and pustular cysts. What grade of acne is this?
Clients with higher grades of acne should be referred to?
A skin condition caused by inflammation of the sebaceous glands.
This condition is often characterized by inflammation, dry or oily scaling or crusting, and/or itchiness. The red flaky skin often appears in the eyebrows, scalp, hairline, forehead, and nose. Sometimes treated with cortisone creams.
A condition of dry, scaly skin due to a deficiency or absence of sebum. Caused by old age and exposure to cold.
A condition appearing primarily on the cheeks and nose, characterized by flushing, telangiectasia, and the formation of papules and pustules.
Spicy foods, caffeine, alcohol, exposure to extreme temperatures and stress, can aggravate this chronic skin condition.
A sebaceous cyst or fatty tumor.
This is filled with sebum and ranges in size from a pea to an orange. Usually appears on the scalp, neck, and back. Sometimes called a wen.
Deficiency in perspiration, often a result of fever or certain skin diseases.
Foul smelling perspiration, usually noticeable in the armpits or on the feet.
Excessive sweating, caused by heat or general body weakness.
Also known as prickly heat; acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands, characterized by the eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itching skin. Caused by exposure to excessive heat.
Inflammatory condition of the skin, the lesions come in various forms including vesicle or papules.
An inflammatory, painful itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, presenting many forms of dry or moist lesions. There are several different types of this non-contagious condition.
Fever blister or cold sore; recurring viral infection characterized by the eruption of a single vesicle or a group of vesicles on a red swollen base, The blisters usually appear on the lips, nostrils, or other parts of the face and can last up to three weeks.
A skin disease characterized by red patches, covered with silver-white scales usually found on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest and lower back. Caused by skin cell turning over faster than normal. This condition rarely occurs on the face. Non-contagious.
What internal factors can affect pigmentation?
Heredity or hormonal fluctuations
What outside factor can affect pigmentation?
Prolonged exposure to the sun
What accompanies all skin disorders and many systemic disorders?
Certain drugs can affect what attribute of the skin?
Congenital leukoderma, or absence of melanin pigment of the body, this condition causes early aging and is very sensitive to sunlight.
A condition characterized by increased pigmentation on the skin in spots that are not elevated. Also called liver spots, although they have nothing to do with the liver. Caused by cumulative sun exposure.
Technical term for freckles. Small yellow to brown spots on skin exposed to sunlight and air.
Skin disorder characterized by light abnormal patches caused by a burn or congenital disease that destroys the pigment producing cells. Classified as vitiligo and albinism.
Small or large malformation of the skin due to normal pigmentation or dilated capillaries; commonly known as a birthmark.
Abnormal brown or wine-colored skin discoloration with a circular and irregular shape. Permanent coloration appears during aging, after certain diseases and after the disappearance of moles, freckles and liver spots. The cause is unknown.
Changes in pigment caused by exposure to the sun or ultraviolet (UV) rays.
Milky-white spots (leukoderma) of the skin. Hereditary condition, may be related to thyroid. This condition must be protected from overexposure to the sun.
Abnormal growth of the skin. Many of these are benign or harmless.
An acquired, superficial, thickened patch of epidermis. Commonly known as a callus. Caused by pressure or friction on the hands and feet.
A small brown spot on the skin. Resembles freckles. Can be flat or raised and many sizes. Large dark hairs often occur inside these.
Small outgrowth of the skin, normally occurs on the necks of older individuals. Harmless and easily removed by a dermatologist.
Technical term for wart. Caused by a virus and is infectious. Able to spread.
The most common type of skin cancer, also the least severe. Often characterized by light or pearly nodules.
Basal cell carcinoma
More severe than basal cell carcinoma, this type of skin cancer is characterized by scaly red papules or nodules.
Squamous cell carcinoma
The most severe form of skin cancer, characterized by black or dark brown patched on the skin that may appear uneven in texture, jagged or raised.
This type of skin cancer often appears on individuals who do not have regular sun exposure, and is most commonly located in areas of the body that are not regularly exposed. Nicknamed the "city person's cancer". Least common but most dangerous.
The medical term for abnormal skin inflammation.
The most common skin disease for nail practitioners. Also known as contact dermatitis.
Caused by touching certain substances to the skin, can be long or short term. This type of dermatitis has many causes.
Dermatitis venenata (irritant contact dermatitis)
Caused by becoming allergic to an ingredient of a substance. This type of dermatitis is developed over continued exposure to certain chemicals.
Dermatitis venenata (allergic contact dermatitis)
An allergic reaction after continued and/or repeated exposure to a chemical or substance normally presents itself after how long?
4 to 6 months.
What are some likely places for an allergic reaction to occur due to overexposure to chemicals and/or substances?
Practitioner - Fingers, palms, face, back of the hands. Client - scalp, hairline, forehead, neckline.
What is the term used to describe a greatly increased or exaggeration of sensitivity to products?
Irritating substances will temporarily damage what part of the skin?
Swelling is triggered by what system in the body?
The immune system
What is released in the body and is responsible for the itchiness that often accompanies contact dermatitis?
Once contact dermatitis subsides, the surrounding skin is left damaged, scaly, cracked and dry. If repeated exposure occurs in the future, what could develop?
A permanent allergic reaction
What is a very common salon irritant?
Do not wash your hands more than how many times per day?
If a client becomes allergic to a product you are using, what should you do?
What could occur if your tools and equipment are not kept clean and free of chemicals and products?
What does the American Cancer Society recommend using to help make potential skin cancer easier to recognize?
The ABCD Cancer Checklist.
What does the abbreviation ABCD stand for? This is the recommended method of screening at home, according to the American Cancer Society. These characteristics should be evaluated when conducting a self-care exam.
Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter
The American Cancer Society recommends using this method of evaluation when checking existing moles or new growths.
ABCD Cancer Checklist