AP Biology Chapter 30

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The sporophytes of mosses depend on the gametophytes for water and nutrition. In seed plants, the reverse is
true. From which seed plant sporophyte structure(s) do the immature (unfertilized) gametophytes directly gain
water and nutrition?
A) sporophylls
B) embryos
C) sporangia
D) sporopollenin
E) ovary

c

The result of heterospory is
A) the existence of male and female sporophytes.
B) the existence of male and female gametophytes.
C) the absence of sexuality from both plant generations.
D) both (A) and (B) above.

b

Which of the following is an ongoing trend in the evolution of land plants?
A) decrease in the size of the leaf
B) reduction of the gametophyte phase of the life cycle
C) elimination of sperm cells or sperm nuclei
D) increasing reliance on water to bring sperm and egg together
E) replacement of roots by rhizoids

b

All of the following cellular structures are functionally important in cells of the gametophytes of both
angiosperms and gymnosperms, except
A) haploid nuclei.
B) mitochondria.
C) cell walls.
D) chloroplasts.
E) peroxisomes.

d

Plants with a dominant sporophyte are successful on land partly because
A) having no stomata, they lose less water.
B) they all disperse by means of seeds.
C) diploid plants experience fewer mutations than do haploid plants.
D) their gametophytes are completely enclosed within sporophyte tissue.
E) eggs and sperm need not be produced.

d

The seed coatʹs most important function is to provide
A) a nonstressful environment for the megasporangium.
B) the means for dispersal.
C) dormancy.
D) a nutrient supply for the embryo.
E) desiccation resistance.

e

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?
A) sporopollenin
B) lignin present in cell walls
C) pollen
D) use of air currents as a dispersal agent
E) megaphylls

c

Which of the following most closely represents the male gametophyte of seed-bearing plants?
A) ovule
B) microspore mother cell
C) pollen grain interior
D) embryo sac
E) fertilized egg

c

Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure
to UV radiation. Rank the cells below, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this
pigment.
1. cells of sporangium
2. cells in the interior of a subterranean root
3. epidermal cells of sporophyte megaphylls
4. cells of a gametophyte
A) 3, 4, 1, 2
B) 3, 4, 2, 1
C) 3, 1, 4, 2
D) 3, 2, 1, 4
E) 3, 1, 2, 4

c

Which number represents the mature gametophyte?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 7
E) 11

d

Which number represents an embryo?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 7
D) 9
E) 11

e

Meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s)?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 2 and 8
D) 4 and 8
E) 10 and 12

b

Which number represents a megaspore mother cell?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 7
E) 11

b

Which numbers represent haploid cells or tissues?
A) 1, 3, and 5
B) 7, 9, and 11
C) 1, 3, and 11
D) 1, 5, and 7
E) 5, 7, and 9

e

The process labeled ʺ6ʺ involves
A) nuclear fission.
B) mitosis.
C) meiosis.
D) fertilization.
E) binary fission.

b

The embryo sac of an angiosperm flower is best represented by which number?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 7
D) 9
E) 11

c

In angiosperms, which number most nearly represents the event that initiates the formation of endosperm?
A) 4
B) 6
C) 8
D) 10
E) 12

d

Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits
originated:
1. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence
2. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence
3. gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence
A) 1 → 2 → 3
B) 2 → 3 → 1
C) 2 → 1 → 3
D) 3 → 2 → 1
E) 3 → 1 → 2

e

In seed plants, which part of a pollen grain has a function most like that of the seed coat?
A) sporophyll
B) male gametophyte
C) sporopollenin
D) stigma
E) sporangium

c

In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most
similar to a
A) moss sporophyte.
B) moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia.
C) fern sporophyte.
D) hermaphroditic fern gametophyte.
E) fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia.

e

Which of these is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the
typical spore?
A) a different type of sporopollenin
B) an internal reservoir of liquid water
C) integument(s)
D) ability to be dispersed
E) waxy cuticle

c

A researcher has developed two stains for use with seed plants. One stains sporophyte tissue blue; the other
stains gametophyte tissue red. If the researcher exposes pollen grains to both stains, and then rinses away the
excess stain, what should occur?
A) The pollen grains will be pure red.
B) The pollen grains will be pure blue.
C) The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors.
D) The pollen grains will have blue interiors and red exteriors.
E) Insofar as the pollen grains are independent of the plant that produced them, they will not absorb either
stain.

c

Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant ferns because they
A) are woody.
B) have macrophylls.
C) have pollen.
D) have sporophylls.
E) have spores.

c

The main way that pine trees disperse their offspring is by using
A) fruits that are eaten by animals.
B) spores.
C) squirrels to bury cones.
D) windblown seeds.
E) flagellated sperm swimming through water.

d

Generally, wind pollination is most likely to be found in seed plants that grow
A) close to the ground.
B) in dense, single-species stands.
C) in relative isolation from other members of the same species.
D) along coastlines where prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea.
E) in well-drained soils.

b

Which of these statements correctly describes a portion of the pine life cycle?
A) Female gametophytes use mitosis to produce eggs.
B) Seeds are produced in pollen-producing cones.
C) Pollen grains contain female gametophytes.
D) A pollen tube slowly digests its way through the triploid endosperm.

a

Which of these statements is true of the pine life cycle?
A) Cones are homologous to the capsules of moss plants.
B) The pine tree is a gametophyte.
C) Male and female gametophytes are in close proximity during gamete synthesis.
D) Conifer pollen grains contain male gametophytes.
E) Double fertilization is a relatively common phenomenon.

d

Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear
during development, assuming that fertilization occurs?
1. sporophyte embryo
2. female gametophyte
3. egg cell
4. megaspore
A) 4 → 3 → 2 → 1
B) 4 → 2 → 3 → 1
C) 4 → 1 → 2 → 3
D) 1 → 4 → 3 → 2
E) 1 → 4 → 2 → 3

b

Which of the following can be found in gymnosperms?
A) non-fertile flower parts.
B) triploid endosperm.
C) fruits.
D) pollen.
E) carpels.

d

Similar to cacti and euphorbs, conifers often have leaves that are modified into a needle -like shape-an
adaptation to arid environments. Yet, the taiga bioprovince of the northern hemisphere and the slopes of
mountain ranges receive plenty of annual precipitation and have dense conifer forests. In what way are such
environments able to account for the presence of trees whose leaves are adapted to arid conditions?
A) The soil there drains poorly.
B) Water around the roots or on the soil surface is often frozen, and therefore unavailable.
C) Albedo (the fraction of light reflected from a surface) off the arctic ice cap desiccates unprotected leaves.
D) Acid deposition is intense at such latitudes.
E) UV radiation is intense at such latitudes.

b

Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the
smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).
1. sporophyte
2. microspores
3. microsporangia
4. pollen cone
5. pollen nuclei
A) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5
B) 1, 4, 2, 3, 5
C) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
D) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
E) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1

a

Which of these statements is false?
A) A female pinecone is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
B) A male pinecone is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
C) A flower is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
D) A mature fruit is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.

d

Which trait(s) is (are) shared by many modern gymnosperms and angiosperms?
1. pollen transported by wind
2. lignified xylem
3. microscopic gametophytes
4. sterile sporophylls, modified to attract pollinators
5. endosperm
A) 1 only
B) 1 and 3
C) 1, 2, and 3
D) 1, 3, and 5
E) 2, 4, and 5

c

Which feature of cycads distinguishes them from most other gymnosperms?
1. They have exposed ovules.
2. They have flagellated sperm.
3. They are pollinated by animals.
A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 3 only
D) 2 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3

d

Which feature of cycads makes them similar to many angiosperms?
1. They have exposed ovules.
2. They have flagellated sperm.
3. They are pollinated by animals.
A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 3 only
D) 2 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3

c

If one were to erect a new taxon of plants that included all plants that are pollinated by animals, and only plants
that are pollinated by animals, then this new taxon would be
A) monophyletic.
B) paraphyletic.
C) polyphyletic.
D) identical in composition to the phylum Anthophyta.
E) identical in composition to the phylum Cycadophyta.

c

If the beetles survive by consuming cycad pollen, then whether the beetles should be considered mutualists
with, or parasites of, the cycads depends upon
A) the extent to which their overall activities affect cycad reproduction.
B) the extent to which the beetles are affected by the neurotoxins.
C) the extent to which the beetles damage the cycad flowers.
D) the distance the beetles must travel between cycad microsporophylls and cycad megasporophylls.

a

On the Pacific island of Guam, large herbivorous bats called ʺflying foxesʺ commonly feed on cycad seeds, a
potent source of neurotoxins. The flying foxes do not visit male cones. Consequently, what should be true?
A) The flying foxes are attracted to cycad fruit, and eat the enclosed seeds only by accident.
B) Flying foxes are highly susceptible to the effects of the neurotoxins.
C) The flying foxes assist the beetles as important pollinating agents of the cycads.
D) Flying foxes can be dispersal agents of cycad seeds if the seeds sometimes get swallowed whole (i.e.,
without getting chewed).

d

Native peoples of Guam, such as the Chamorro people, are familiar with the toxicity of cycad tissues, and
avoid eating them. They do, however, feast on flying foxes. The Chamorros suffer relatively high incidences of
a neurodegenerative disease similar to Lou Gehrigʹs disease (ALS). Which question follows most logically from
these observations?
A) Do the fruits of cycads also contain the neurotoxins?
B) Do pollen-producing cones produce as much neurotoxin as seed-producing cones?
C) Is the neurodegenerative disease of the Chamorros transmitted by the bite of the flying fox, similar to the
way vampire bats can transmit rabies?
D) Do flying foxes concentrate the cycad neurotoxins in their tissues?
E) Can it be documented whether Lou Gehrig ever traveled to Guam and, if so, did he eat cycad seeds?

d

Which structure is common to both gymnosperms and angiosperms?
A) stigma
B) carpel
C) ovule
D) ovary
E) anthers

c

A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and cell
walls made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, which of the following, if present, would be least
useful?
A) endosperm
B) seeds
C) sperm that lack flagella
D) flowers
E) spores

e

What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels, and pinecone scales?
A) They are female reproductive parts.
B) None are capable of photosynthesis.
C) They are modified leaves.
D) They are found on flowers.
E) They are found on angiosperms.

c

Reptilian embryos are protected from desiccation by a leathery shell. Similarly, which pair of structures
protects seed plantsʹ embryos and male gametophytes, respectively, from desiccation?
A) ovules : waxy cuticle
B) ovaries : filaments
C) fruits : stamens
D) pollen grains : waxy cuticle
E) integuments : sporopollenin

e

scale of ovulate (ovule-bearing) pinecone
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

d

integument of pine seed
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

d

egg cell in the embryo sac
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

b

fruit
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

d

pollen tube
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

a

microspores of pollen cones
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

c

megasporangium of pine ovules
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

d

Given the differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms in the development of the integument(s), which
of these statements is the most logical consequence?
A) The seed coats of angiosperms should be relatively thicker than those of gymnosperms.
B) It should be much more difficult for pollen tubes to enter angiosperm ovules than for them to enter
gymnosperm ovules.
C) The female gametophytes of angiosperms should not be as well protected from environmental stress as
should those of gymnosperms.
D) As a direct consequence of such differences, angiosperms should have fruit.
E) Angiosperm seeds should be more susceptible to desiccation.

a

Which of the following is a characteristic of all angiosperms?
A) complete reliance on wind as the pollinating agent
B) double internal fertilization
C) free-living gametophytes
D) carpels that contain microsporangia
E) ovules that are not contained within ovaries

b

Which of the following is true concerning flowering plants?
A) The flower includes sporoophyte tissue.
B) The gametophyte generation is dominant.
C) The gametophyte generation is what we see when looking at a large plant.
D) The sporophyte generation is not photosynthetic.
E) The sporophyte generation consists of relatively few cells within the flower.

a

The yolk and/or albumen of an animal egg
A) endosperm
B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei
C) carpels
D) fruit
E) integuments

a

The shell of an animal egg
A) endosperm
B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei
C) carpels
D) fruit
E) integuments

e

The internal fertilization that occurs prior to shell deposition
A) endosperm
B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei
C) carpels
D) fruit
E) integuments

b

The dispersal and/or nurture of young after hatching from the egg
A) endosperm
B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei
C) carpels
D) fruit
E) integuments

d

What adaptations should one expect of the seed coats of angiosperm species whose seeds are dispersed by
frugivorous (fruit-eating) animals, as opposed to angiosperm species whose seeds are dispersed by other
means?
1. The exterior of the seed coat should have barbs or hooks.
2. The seed coat should contain secondary compounds that irritate the lining of the animalʹs mouth.
3. The seed coat should be able to withstand low pHʹs.
4. The seed coat, upon its complete digestion, should provide vitamins or nutrients to animals.
5. The seed coat should be resistant to the animalsʹ digestive enzymes.
A) 4 only
B) 1 and 2
C) 2 and 3
D) 3 and 5
E) 3, 4, and 5

d

The seeds of orchids are among the smallest known, with virtually no endosperm and with miniscule seed
leaves. Consequently, what should one expect to be true of such seeds?
A) They require extensive periods of dormancy during which the embryo develops.
B) They are surrounded by brightly colored, sweet fruit.
C) They germinate very soon after being released from the ovary.
D) The developing embryo within is dependent upon the gametophyte for nutrition.
E) The sporophytes that produce such seeds are wind pollinated.

c

Which of the following is a structure of angiosperm gametophytes?
A) immature ovules
B) pollen tubes
C) ovaries
D) stamens
E) sepals

b

Which of these statements is true of monocots?
A) They are currently thought to be polyphyletic.
B) The veins of their leaves form a netlike pattern.
C) They, along with the eudicots, magnoliids, and basal angiosperms, are currently placed in the phylum
Anthophyta.
D) Each possesses multiple cotyledons.
E) They are the clade that includes most of our crops, except the cereal grains.

c

Carpels and stamens are
A) sporophyte plants in their own right.
B) gametophyte plants in their own right.
C) gametes.
D) spores.
E) modified sporophylls.

e

Which is a true statement about angiosperm carpels?
A) Carpels are features of the gametophyte generation.
B) Carpels consist of anther and stamen.
C) Carpels are structures that directly produce male gametes.
D) Carpels surround and nourish the female gametophyte.
E) Carpels consist of highly modified microsporangia.

d

The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. This cell divides to produce two haploid
sperm cells. What type of cell division does the generative cell undergo to produce these sperm cells?
A) binary fission
B) mitosis
C) meiosis
D) mitosis without subsequent cytokinesis
E) meiosis without subsequent cytokinesis

b

Angiosperm double fertilization is so-called because it features the formation of
A) two embryos from one egg and two sperm cells.
B) one embryo from one egg fertilized by two sperm cells.
C) two embryos from two sperm cells and two eggs.
D) one embryo involving one sperm cell and of endosperm involving a second sperm cell.
E) one embryo from two eggs fertilized by a single sperm cell.

d

Among plants known as legumes (beans, peas, alfalfa, clover, etc.) the seeds are contained in a fruit that is itself
called a legume, better known as a pod. Upon opening such pods, it is commonly observed that some ovules
have become mature seeds, whereas other ovules have not. Thus, which of these statements is/are true?
1. The flowers that gave rise to such pods were not pollinated.
2. Pollen tubes did not enter all of the ovules in such pods.
3. There was apparently not enough endosperm to distribute to all of the ovules in such pods.
4. The ovules that failed to develop into seeds were derived from sterile floral parts.
5. Fruit can develop, even if all ovules within have not been fertilized.
A) 1 only
B) 1 and 5
C) 2 and 4
D) 2 and 5
E) 3 and 5

d

How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?
A) by nourishing the plants that make them
B) by facilitating dispersal of seeds
C) by attracting insects to the pollen inside
D) by producing sperm and eggs inside a protective coat
E) by producing triploid cells via double fertilization

b

In flowering plants, meiosis occurs specifically in the
A) spore mother cells.
B) gametophytes.
C) endosperm.
D) gametes.
E) embryos.

a

Arrange the following structures from largest to smallest, assuming that they belong to two generations of the
same angiosperm.
1. ovary
2. ovule
3. egg
4. carpel
5. embryo sac
A) 4, 2, 1, 5, 3
B) 4, 5, 2, 1, 3
C) 5, 4, 3, 1, 2
D) 5, 1, 4, 2, 3
E) 4, 1, 2, 5, 3

e

Which structure(s) must pass through the micropyle for successful fertilization to occur in angiosperms?
A) one sperm nucleus
B) two sperm nuclei
C) the pollen tube
D) A and C
E) B and C

e

How many chromosomes should be in a tube cell nucleus?
A) 4
B) 8
C) 16
D) 24
E) 32

b

How many chromosomes should be in an endosperm nucleus?
A) 4
B) 8
C) 16
D) 24
E) 32

d

How many chromosomes should be in a generative cell nucleus?
A) 4
B) 8
C) 16
D) 24
E) 32

b

How many chromosomes should be in an embryo sac nucleus?
A) 4
B) 8
C) 16
D) 24
E) 32

b

How many chromosomes should be in an embryo nucleus?
A) 4
B) 8
C) 16
D) 24
E) 32

c

How many chromosomes should be in a megasporangium nucleus?
A) 4
B) 8
C) 16
D) 24
E) 32

c

Hypothetically, one of the major benefits of double fertilization in angiosperms is to
A) decrease the potential for mutation by insulating the embryo with other cells.
B) increase the number of fertilization events and offspring produced.
C) promote diversity in flower shape and color.
D) coordinate developmental timing between the embryo and its food stores.
E) emphasize embryonic survival by increasing embryo size.

d

Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed?
A) ovule
B) ovary
C) fruit
D) style
E) stamen

a

Which of the following flower parts develops into the pulp of a fleshy fruit?
A) stigma
B) style
C) ovule
D) ovary
E) micropyle

d

Angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial plants. Which of these features is unique to them and helps
account for their success?
A) wind pollination
B) dominant gametophytes
C) fruits enclosing seeds
D) embryos enclosed within seed coats
E) sperm cells without flagella

c

A plant whose reproductive parts produce nectar is also most likely to
A) have brightly colored reproductive parts.
B) produce sweet-tasting fruit.
C) rely on wind pollination.
D) have no parts that can perform photosynthesis.
E) suffer significant seed loss to sugar-seeking insects.

a

In a typical angiosperm, what is the sequence of structures encountered by the tip of a growing pollen tube on
its way to the egg?
1. micropyle
2. style
3. ovary
4. stigma
A) 4 → 2 → 3 → 1
B) 4 → 3 → 2 → 1
C) 1 → 4 → 2 → 3
D) 1 → 3 → 4 → 2
E) 3 → 2 → 4 → 1

a

Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like
poison oak (Rhus). These secondary compounds are primarily adaptations that
A) prevent desiccation.
B) favor pollination.
C) foster seed dispersal.
D) decrease competition.
E) inhibit herbivory.

e

Which feature of honeybees probably arose under the mutual evolutionary influence of insect-pollinated
flowering plants?
A) possessing three pairs of legs
B) possessing a metabolism whose rate is influenced by environmental temperature
C) possessing an exoskeleton made of chitin
D) possessing an abdomen that is densely covered with short bristles
E) possessing an ovipositor modified as a non-reusable stinger

d

The fruit of the mistletoe, a parasitic angiosperm, is a one-seeded berry. In members of the genus Viscum, the
outside of the seed is viscous (sticky), which permits the seed to adhere to surfaces, such as the branches of host
plants or the beaks of birds. What should be expected of the fruit if the viscosity of Viscum seeds is primarily an
adaptation for dispersal rather than an adaptation for infecting host plant tissues?
A) It should be drab in color.
B) It should be colored so as to provide it with camouflage.
C) It should be nutritious.
D) It should secrete enzymes that can digest bark.
E) It should contain chemicals that cause birds to fly to the ground and vomit.

c

The fruit is made of material high in calories.
A) animal skin, fur, or feathers
B) animal digestive tract
C) water currents
D) gravity and terrain
E) air currents

b

The fruit is covered with spines or hooks.
A) animal skin, fur, or feathers
B) animal digestive tract
C) water currents
D) gravity and terrain
E) air currents

a

The fruit contains an air bubble.
A) animal skin, fur, or feathers
B) animal digestive tract
C) water currents
D) gravity and terrain
E) air currents

c

The fruit has a heavy weight and spheroidal shape.
A) animal skin, fur, or feathers
B) animal digestive tract
C) water currents
D) gravity and terrain
E) air currents

d

The fruit has light, fibrous plumes.
A) animal skin, fur, or feathers
B) animal digestive tract
C) water currents
D) gravity and terrain
E) air currents

e

Over human history, which process has been most important in improving the features of plants that have long
been used by humans as staple foods?
A) genetic engineering
B) artificial selection
C) natural selection
D) sexual selection
E) pesticide and herbicide application

b

What is the greatest threat to plant diversity?
A) insects
B) grazing and browsing by animals
C) pathogenic fungi
D) competition with other plants
E) human population growth

e

Which of the following is not a valid argument for preserving tropical forests?
A) People in the tropics do not need to increase agricultural output.
B) Many organisms are becoming extinct.
C) Plants that are possible sources of medicines are being lost.
D) Plants that could be developed into new crops are being lost.
E) Clearing land for agriculture results in soil destruction.

a

A botanist was visiting a tropical region for the purpose of discovering plants with medicinal properties. All of
the following might be ways of identifying potentially useful plants except
A) observing which plants sick animals seek out.
B) observing which plants are the most used food plants.
C) observing which plants animals do not eat.
D) collecting plants and subjecting them to chemical analysis.
E) asking local people which plants they use as medicine.

b

Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?
A) in the style of a flower
B) inside the tip of a pollen tube
C) enclosed in the stigma of a flower
D) within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower
E) packed into pollen sacs within the anthers found on a stamen

d

A fruit is most commonly
A) a mature ovary.
B) a thickened style.
C) an enlarged ovule.
D) a modified root.
E) a mature female gametophyte.

a

With respect to angiosperms, which of the following is incorrectly paired with its chromosome count?
A) egg-n
B) megaspore-2n
C) microspore-n
D) zygote-2n
E) sperm-n

b

Which of the following is not a characteristic that distinguishes gymnosperms and angiosperms from other
plants?
A) alternation of generations
B) ovules
C) integuments
D) pollen
E) dependent gametophytes

a

Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except
A) seeds.
B) pollen.
C) vascular tissue.
D) ovaries.
E) ovules.

d

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