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TCU PSYC 10213

schizophrenia

Literal translation "split mind;" a group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, inappropriate emotions and actions; delusions & hallucinations

Theories about the causes of mental illness

Supernatural theories view abnormality as a result of divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin; Biological/Natural theories see abnormality as similar to physical disease; a breakdown of some systems of the body; Psychological theories see mental illness as a result of some trauma

Stone Age

Beliefs thought to be predominantly supernatural; trephination as treatment for mental illness; exorcisms

Ancient China

Predominantly a natural or biological approach to abnormality; concept of Yin and Yang; belief that emotions were a result of "vital air" flowing over certain organs

Ancient Greece, Egypt, Rome

theory of the "wandering uterus;" Hippocrates and the 4 humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile; Plato believed that mental disorders were caused by the rational mind being overcome by impulse, passion, or appetite; "insane" people were often confined to their homes, had their property taken away, and were not allowed to marry

Medieval Theories

largely viewed from a natural/biological perspective; the Inquisition was originated as a way to identify and punish religious heretics, but "witches" and "satanists" were also arrested; many of the accused witches may have been mentally ill and may have believed that they were witches; many may have also been the victims of poor nutrition or social control; psychic epidemics and mass hysteria: St. Vitus' Dance

Birth of mental hospitals

Patients were not well-treated in these facilities; they were often chained, locked in boxes, and put on display for a fee; Act for Regulating Madhouses passed in 1774: designed to clean up conditions and prevent people from being unjustly committed, required licensing and inspection as well as a physician signature for admission, applied only to paying patients in private institutions

Modern mental health

As the quality of institutions for the mentally ill began to improve, more people were admitted and quality again began to decline; many individuals were simply warehoused; this began to change in the early 20th century with increased understanding of the biological components of mental illness; Emil Kraeplin: developed early classification system for mental disorders that is the basis for today's system

Anxiety disorders

distressing, persistent maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety; include generalized anxiety disorder, phobia, OCD, panic disorder

Dissociative disorders

conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings; include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder

client is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

Phobia

Anxiety disorder; persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation

OCD

Anxiety disorder; characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions

Panic disorder

Anxiety disorder; marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation

Dissociative amnesia

selective memory loss often brought on by extreme stress

Dissociative fugue

flight from one's home and identity accompanies amnesia

Dissociative identity disorder

rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities; formerly called multiple personality disorder

Mood disorders

characterized by emotional extremes; include major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, mania

Major depressive disorder

a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

Bipolar disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression; and the overexcited state of mania; formerly called manic-depressive disorder

Mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state; one end of bipolar

Personality disorders

disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning; usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions

Antisocial personality disorder

disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist

Psychoanalysis

Freud believed the patient's free association, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight; use has rapidly decreased in recent years; Interpretation - the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight

Social-Cognitive perspective

says that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences

Behavioral therapy

therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors; uses counter-conditioning, systematic desensitization & aversive conditioning

Criticisms of psychoanalysis

Is an interpretation; costly; must be often

Active listening

Paraphrase, Invite clarification, Reflect feelings

Humanistic approach

Emphasizes people's potential for self-fulfillment; help people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance; attempts to reduce conflicts that impede (stop) natural developmental growth; more interested in present and future, focused on conscious thoughts, taking responsibility for feelings and actions, focused on promoting growth, refers to people as clients rather than patients

DSM-IV

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Psychopharmacology

study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

Meta-analysis

procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

Humanistic v. psychoanalytic

focused more on present and future than past; focused on conscious thoughts and feelings rather than unconscious; taking immediate responsibility not focusing on uncovering hidden detriments; promoting growth rather than curing illness; clients not patients

Family therapy

treats the family as a system; views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; encourages family members toward positive relationships and improved communication

Rationale-emotive therapy

confrontational cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis; vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions; emphasizing a behavioral "homework" component

Attitude

often based on our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events; if we believe someone is unkind, we may feel dislike for that person and act unfriendly

Attribution

tendency to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

Fundamental Attribution Error

tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

Asch

a series of studies published in the 1950s that demonstrated the power of conformity in groups comparing the length of lines

Foot-in-the-Door phenomenon

tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

Cognitive dissonance theory

we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent; example- when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

Social facilitation

improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered

Social loafing

tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

Deindividuation

loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity; losing self and becoming more responsive to the group experience!

Frustration-Aggression Principle

principle that the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal creates anger

Aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

Sociometry

the quantitative study of social relationships

Milgram

experiment on obedience to authority figures; a series of social psychology experiments conducted by this Yale University psychologist, which measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience

conformity

Asch's experiment is an example of

63%

% of people willing to do the most extreme level of shock in Milgram's shock experiment

obedience

Given the choice between obedience and morality, _________ will usually win

Psychoanalytic

Talking about your past and unresolved feelings

interpretation

taking the unconscious and making it meaningful

resistance

Person had a difficult situation, therapist trying to talk to them about it, they won't discuss it

group therapies

family therapy, couples therapy, self-help groups

Plato

this person's view of mental disorders is the rational mind being overcome by impulse, passion and appetite

psychological, biological/natural, spiritual/supernatural

3 perspectives for addressing psychological disorders

inquisition

many people were probably mentally ill during this period of history

Kraeplin

this person started the classification of mental disorders

bystander effect

less likely to help people if others are around

aggression

impacted by hormones, alcohol, hot weather increases likelihood

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