cell cycle

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s phase

duplication of chromosome (10-12 Hr)

M PHASE (mitosis)

separation of DNA/nucleus and separation of cytoplasm (1 hr)

interphase

include the phases that prepare cells for growth and division

g1 phase

gap phase or growth phase (proteins produced for organelle production)

g2 phase

gap phase or growth phase (proteins produced for mitosis)

g2M checkpoint

is all DNA replicated? is environment favorable
enter mitosis, trigger early mitotic events that lead to chromosome alignment on the spindle in metaphase

Metaphase to anaphase transition

are all chromosome attached to the spindle? stimulate sister-chromatid separation, leading to mitosis and cytokinesis

start checkpoint

is environment favorable? occurs in late g1 where the cell commits to cell cycle entry and chromosome duplication

robust and reliable

the system is ___ in that many assurances are in place to operate under various conditions

adaptable

the system is ___ in that it is found in specific cell types and responds to specific signal

cyclin

__ forms a complex with cyclin dependent kinase to trigger cell cycle event

cdks

_ are inactive with cyclins

cyclin dependent kinase

protein kinases that rise and falls as the cell progresses through the cell cycle at specific events

cyclins

cdk regulators that must be bound to cdks for activity

cyclin-cdk complex

triggers and activates cell cycle events

g1/s cyclins

activate cdks in late g1 to trigger progression through start resulting in commitment to cell cycle entry

s cyclins

binds cdks after progression through start to help stimulate chromosome duplication

m cyclins

activate cdks that stimulate entry into mitosis at g2/m checkpoint

g1 cyclin

helps govern activities of the g1/s cyclins which control progression through start in late g1

cki p27

cdk inhibitor protein, regulate cyclin-cdk complexes by binding to the complex via the cdk active site rendering it inactive

g1-cdk

favorable extracellular environment

g1/s-cdk and s-cdk

dna damage

m-cdk

unreplicated dna and dna damage

apc/c

chromosome unattached to spindle

CYCLIN D

CDK4, CDK6

CYCLIN E

CDK2

CYCLIN A

CDK1, CDK2

CYCLIN B

CDK1

G1 CDK

CYCLIN D

G1/S CDK

CYCLIN E

S-CDK

CYCLIN A

M-CDK

CYCLIN B

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