has an interior composed of dense, intensely hot metal that generates a magnetic field enveloping the earth
is hot pliable layer surrounding and less dense than the core
is a cool lightweight, brittle outermost layer that floats on top of the mantle.
The upper layer of the earth's mantle contains
MAGMATIC convection currents that break the overlaying crust into a mosaic tectonic plates.
mid oceanic ridges
allows magma forces up through cracks in oceanic
When an oceanic plate collides with a continental landmass, the continental plate will ride up over the seafloor and the oceanic plate will________ down into the mantle
Deep ocean treanches mark
three types of Rock
Igneous, sedimentary, & metamorphic
is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid element or compound having a definite chemical composition and a specific internal crystal structure
is a solid cohesive aggregate of one or more minerals.
Quick cooling of magma produces fine-grained rocks.
slow cooling of magma produces coarse-grained rocks
original constituents were clays or muds
composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains.
consolidated volcanic as ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption
sedimentary rocks made from the minerals calcite which came from the beds of evaporated seas and lakes and from sea animals
Physical break- up of rocks into smaller particles without a change in chemical composition
deposition of loosened material
form mudstone and shale
is the study of minerals that are valuable for manufacturing and trade
Metal elements give up an electron
and thus have a positive charge ( cations)
includes halite ( rock salt), gypsum, postash
80 industral metals
between 1/3 and 1/2 are considered strategic resources
geologic resource extraction
involves the physical processes of separating minerals, metals, and other geologiuc resources from ores or other materials
rock in which a valuable or useful metal occurs at a concentration high enough to make mining it economically attractive
Underground tunnelind is very dangerous due to:
Gas, inhalimg Particulate matter, Tunnel collapse
Types of Mining
Placer, strip/ open-pit, tailing, ground water contamination, spoil banks
surface waste deposits
acid and sediment runoff
refers to the mininf of alluvial deposits for mineral
Strip, open pit or Mountain removal Mining
-large scars on land surface.
- tailings ( toxic runoff)
Surface Mining Control and Reclamination Act ( SMCLRA) ( 1977)
requires better restoration of strip-minined lands especially if the mined land is classified as prime farmland.
Difficult and expesive
Heap- lench extraction
is when large piles of crushed ore are sprayed with an alkaline cyanide solution that percolates through the pile to disslove gold. The effluent is left behind the ponds
Types of Geologic Resource Conservation
Recylcing is common for aluminum, platium, gold, silver, copper, lead. Steel and iron recycling is easliy done ate minimills.Subsituting new materials
aluminum must be extracted from bauxite by electrolysis. This required lots of energy
Recylcing waste aluminum consumes
1/20 the energy of extraction from rare ore
are earth quakes, volcanoes, floods , landslides, erosion
is gradual movement
are sudden movements in the earth's crust that occur along faults where one rock mass slides past another
is when shaking causes soil to lose structure
are seismic sea swels that accompany oceanic and costal landslides and earthquakes
are the sources of most of the earth's crust
human/ enviromental dangers to volcanicc erupstion
are nuess ardentes ( glowing cloudes), Mudslides, ash and dust, sufur emission
excess water that overflows strem banks and covers adjacent land
is the biggest economic loss. Examples are carpet, drywall, drapes, electronics
increase of severity and frecquency of floods
are echannelizatio, soil compaction, pavement, and rooftops put more strom runoff into streams quicker
are flat, fertile farmland that help mitigate flood.
Some flood controls sturctures are
locks, dams, levees
Flood controls structures
separate floodplains from rivers and transfer the problems downstream
is the wearing away of land surfaces by water, wind ice, gravitional creep or other geological agents.
are mass wasting or movement, is a general term for rapid down-slope movement of soil or rock
occur when masses of material move downslope
is the development of deep trenches on flat ground
agricultrual soil erosion
is an invisible crisis
contains many of the world sandy beaches
1st problem with developement on Barrier Island
- sums up environemtal issues associated with high real estate properties in treacherous location of the U.S.
2nd problem with developement on Barrier Island
people place high value on view and recreational access
3rd problem with developement on Barrier Island
construction directly on geological hazardous areas can: cause irreparable damage to entire ecosystem and worsen storm damage
4th problem with developement on Barrier Island
goverment polices often encourge people tp build in risky places