A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.
An organism that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon.
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
A component of the outer membranes of certain gram-negative bacteria responsible for generalized symptoms of fever and ache.
A toxic protein secreted by a bacterial cell that produces specific symptoms even in the absence of the bacterium.
Microorganisms that live in unusually highly saline environments such as the Great Salt Lake or the Dead Sea.
Microorganisms that live in extreme environments. They are further classified as either methanogens, extreme halophiles, or extreme thermophiles.
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
The group of bacteria with a structurally more complex cell wall made of less peptidoglycan. Gram-negative bacteria are often more toxic than gram-positive bacteria.
The group of bacteria with simpler cell walls with a relatively large amount of peptidoglycan. Gram-positive bacteria are usually less toxic than gram-negative bacteria.
Microorganisms that obtain energy by using carbon dioxide to oxidize hydrogen, producing methane as a waste product.
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants.
An organism that requires oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot live without it.
Microorganisms that are normal residents of a host but can cause illness when the host's defenses are weakened by such factors as poor nutrition or a recent bout with the flu.
A type of polymer in bacterial cell walls consisting of modified sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides.
An organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide.
An organism that uses light to generate ATP but that must obtain carbon in organic form.
(plural, pili) A surface appendage in certain bacteria that functions in adherence and the transfer of DNA during conjugation.
An organism that acts as a decomposer by absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter.
The smaller participant in a symbiotic relationship, living in or on the host.
An ecological relationship between organisms of two different species that live together in direct contact.
Movement toward or away from a stimulus.
A DNA-transfer process used by phages to carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another.
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
- Single short circule DNA molecule with no histones. May have plasmids
- No nucleus
- No organelles
Characteristics of a prokaryotes
Methanogens, halophiles, and thermophiles
Examples of Archaea
Prokaryotes that has DNA with histone proteins
Prokaryote that has DNA without histone proteins
memebrs of the Protista that obtain energy by photosynthesis
____ are considered the ancestors of plants because they have chlorophyll a/b, cellulose cell walls,a nd store carbohydrates as starch