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Which binds to same site as Ach on nAchR but activates the receptor initially?

Depolarizing

Which phase may be inhibited by cholinesterase inhibitors

phase II

Which are cholinesterase inhibitors

neostigmine & pyridostigmine Note: they antagonize neuromuscular blockade (i.e. block breakdown of Ach)

Which has the shortest duration

succinylcholine
Note: b/c it's a depolarizing blocker

Which is a longer duration non-depolarizing NMB

Pancuronium

Which are the better non-depol b/c they have minimal cardiovascular effects (ie no His release)

vecuronium, pipecuronium, rocuronium,Rapacuronium

What are 3 effects specific to depol blockcade (succinylcholine)

hyperkalemia, myalgia, inc intraocular & intragastric pressure Note: hyperkalemia is rare but potentially fatal cardiac arrest can occur

3 factors altering responses to NMB's

myasthenia gravis, age, burns

Myasthenia gravis (inc or dec) responsiveness to NMB

inc
Note: so give lower dose of NMB

Aminoglycoside antibiotics (enhance or dec) NMB

enhance
Note: they do this by dec release of Ach

Succinylcholine is antagonized by ___

non-depolarizing blockers

What are 3 BDZs

Diazepam, lorazepam, clonazepam

Which is long acting that provides spasmolytic effects and muscular relaxant

diazepam

Which is intermediate acting and a favorite for older pts

lorazepam

Which is used if confined to bed (very strong)

clonazepam

Which is a GABAb agonist

Baclofen

Intrathecal __ is administered for severe spasticity assoc w/ spinal injury (can cause resp depression)

baclofen

What cause less hypotension than clonidine but hypotension still possible

Tizanidine
Note: dry mouth and drowsiness are side effects

What is commonly used to tx back spasms assoc w/ lower back injury or back strain

Soma

In Soma, __ is a sedative-hypnotic that has additive effects mixed w/ alcohol

metabolite meprobamate
Note: mixing may result in respiratory depression

What has no central mechanism and works at the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Dantrolene

General anesthesia is divided into inhalational and intravenous. Inhalation is divided into halogenated and non-halogenated. The one used today is ___

N20 (non-halogenated)

What are the inhalational agents

-flurane, halothane, N20

IV agents:

...

Barbituate=___

thiopental

Opioid=___

fentanyl

BDZ = ___

MIDAZOLAM
Others include Ketamine, Etomidate, Propofol

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