Alexandrian astronomer (2nd century AD) who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus.
Greek philosopher (4th century BC) who wrote books on many different subjects. Many of his beliefs were accepted as true until the Scientific Revolution.
Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130-200)
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
A set of beliefs about the universe that was disproved by the scientific revolution. (That the sun revolved around the earth, planets were set in 'crystal spheres')
Galen's theory that bodily fluids determined people's personality. The humors were blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.
purging and bleeding
medieval medical "treatments" designed to balance the humors.
Wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Pioneered theory that the earth revolves around the sun; Destroyed the impression that the earthly world was different from the heavenly world; Condemned by Calvin, Luther, and the Catholic Church; Had his book published in 1543, the year of his death, to avoid ridicule from other astronomers
"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"
Book written by Copernicus which explained his heliocentric theory and contradicted the geocentric theory
a view of the universe
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
oval-shaped planetary orbits
three laws of planetary motion
Planets move in elliptical orbits; planets sweep out equal area in equal time; the period of revolution is proportional to the distance to the Sun. Kepler discovered these laws.
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars.
The idea of deriving knowledge from experiment and observation rather than theory
Written by Galileo in 1610. Talked about Galileo's observations through the telescope. Strongly argued Heliocentric Theory.
"Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems"
book written by Galileo comparing the theories of Copernicus and Pholemy
Sir Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion.
Newton's major book describing his Laws of Motion and the theory of universal gravitation.
Newton's laws of motion
1. An object in motion tends to stay in motion.
2. Force = mass x the acceleration of gravity
3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
law of universal gravitation
The scientific law that states that every object in the universe attracts every other object (Discovered by Isaac Newton)
the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions
a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)
"The Structure of the Human Body"
a book written by Vesalius in 1543. It was based on dissections and precise drawings.
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood.
A device that produces magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye.
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
The first scientist to observe cells using a simple microscope. "The Father of Microbiology".
Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)
"The Skeptical Chemist"
Robert Boyle's book, challenged Aristotle's idea that the main elements were earth, water, air and fire. Said that matter was made of small particles linked together in different ways.
Old-fashioned doctors who kept bleeding and purging their patients. In the 16th and 17th centuries, they provided medical care for the vast majority of Europeans.
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through inductive reasoning (using specific examples to prove a conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method.
17th century French philosopher; wrote "Discourse on Method"; said "Cogito ergo sum" ( I think, therefore I am). He believed mind and matter were completely separate. Descartes was known as the father of modern rationalism.
The process of using specific facts to arrive at general observations and conclusions.
Reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific example.
(Great Renewal) written by Sir Francis Bacon in the early 17th century. It was to contain several volumes in which Bacon called for a new start in science and civilization. He only actually completed two full volumes but it's title and intent is significant because he was anticipating a complete new start - a revolution - a fresh page for all knowledge on which everything would be examined again.
1623 Sir Francis Bacon expressed his aspirations and ideals; utopian novel was his creation of an ideal land where "generosity and enlightenment, dignity and splendour, piety and public spirit" were the commonly held qualities of the inhabitants of Bensalem.
"Discourse on Method"
(Rene Descartes)- This written work used skepticism to come to the conclusion "I think, therefore I am" by questioning everything that anyone thinks they are certain of. Thus, the only thing we can be certain of is that we have doubt, and doubt is thought, and thought must come from a mind. He also concluded that because we know we are not perfect, there must be something perfect that gives us that knowledge, and that perfect thing is God. In this way his highly untraditional ideas did not conflict too much with Christianity.
The most famous female astronomer in Germany; recieved training from self-taught astronomer; married Gottfried Kirch and became his assistant; applied for positionas assistant astronomer at the Berlin Academy, she was highly qualified but was denied (because she was a woman and had no university degree).
Maria Sybilla Merian
A trained illustrator, famous for her superb illustrations of insects, was able to brilliantly examine reproductive and developmental cycles of insects in exotic places like Surinam.
querelle de femmes
The "woman question" of whether women were inferior to men and what they should be allowed to do.
Writing that describes a journey discussing customs, habits, and wildlife of a distant place. Became popular during the Enlightenment.
A French philosopher and religious critic who wrote the "Historical and Critical Dictionary".
the solar calendar now in general use, introduced by Gregory XIII in 1582 to correct an error in the Julian calendar by suppressing 10 days, making Oct 5 be called Oct 15, and providing that only years divisible by 400 should be leap years.
~Jewish philosopher born in the Netherlands who was excommunicated from the Hebrew community for his questioning of ideas of faith
~ Known as the father of skepticism: the idea that one should question everything
~ believed that God and nature are one and the same.
The presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
"Ethics as Determined in a Geometric Manner"
book written by Baruch Spinoza (illustrates his rationalist style)
French philospher/scientist/mathematician who invented the calculator and worked with probability, conic sections. Famous in math texbooks for his "triangle" of numbers.
Pascal's book that described his feelings about keeping science and religion united, wanted to show christianity doesnt have to be contrary to reason.
Pascal decided that if he was a good Christian and God did exist, it would be good and if he wasn't a good Christian he would go to hell. If God didn't exist than it didn't matter. Therefore it was a safer bet to be a good Christian just in case God exists.
The concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking.
Thee idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property.
He wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society. Advocated absolutism but not divine right.
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit social contract.
state of nature
The basis of natural rights philosophy; a state of nature is the condition of people living in a situation without man-made government, rules, or laws.
The idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. They give up freedom in exchange for protection.
A nation's ruler or head of state, usually by hereditary right.
A politically organized body of people under a single government. The will of the sovereign is law.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
"Second Treatise on Government"
This was a work by John Locke; published in 1690. In this essay, Locke describes the relationship between a king and his people as a contract. If the king broke that contract, the people could depose him.
Rights that cannot be taken away.
right of rebellion
John Locke's idea that the king was responsible to the people and when their needs were not met, they had the right to rebel and start a new government
"Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
Written by John Locke. He insisted that all ideas are derived from experience. The initial mind at birth is just a blank slate.
"Blank slate" (this is what Locke viewed a human mind to be at birth.)
"Some Thoughts Concerning Education"
Written by John Locke. He said that children learn best from praise and experience, not harshness and memorization.
Royal Society of London
The leading English scientific organization, made up of leading merchants, planters and even theologians, all devoted to the discoveries of scientific ideas.
French Academy of Sciences
A society funded by Louis XIV, which was thought to benefit the king and state and emphasized practical science for new tools and machines.
The teaching of René Descartes that the mind or spirit constitutes one reality while the body is something completely different, separate and apart from mind.
A key idea in the Enlightenment. It was the idea that civilization was constantly improving, and that it was possible to create better people and societies.
Bernard de Fontenelle
wrote "Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds", which introduced the new world view to common people of the upper classes.
An influential group of Enlightenment-era intellectuals, most of whom were French.
The educated and enlightened people... Those of the upper classes who were not scientists or philosophers.
separation of powers
When political power is divided and shared by a variety of classes and legal estates. (concept introduced by Montesquieu in "Spirit of the Laws")
Private drawing rooms where people could have political and philosophical discussions. Salons were often led by influential women.
An 18th century artistic style of elaborate ornamentation and pastel colors.
She was the hostess of an important salon.
A system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers.
"Frederick The Great"-1712-1786;King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform.
Catherine the Great
She ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations.
Seven Years' War
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land. 1756-1763.
The king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)