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Dermatitis - types

contact dermatitis, diaper rash, eczema, atopic dermatitis

Contact dermatitis - 2 categories

allergic - red skin, oozing blisters, itchy, swelling of eyes
irritant - skin feels tight, dry and cracking, painful ulcers

Contact dermatitis - causes

allergic - contact with allergen, after first exposure, cosmetics, rubber, latex, copper, poisonous plants
irritant - contact with an irritant, detergents, wax, chemical

Contact dermatitis - treat

allergic: stay away from substance, dr can do allergy patch test to identify substance, wash skin, clothes exposed immediately, calamine
irritant: avoid substances, wear protective gloves, barrier products (vaseline)

Diaper Rash - symptoms

pimply rash, may lead to fungal infection
f

Diaper rash - causes

contact with urine or feces
tight diapers, antibiotic use, contact with allergen or irritant on bottom

Diaper rash - prevention

change diaper regularly
apply barrier products
clean area with water not wipes
allow area to air dry

Eczema

incurable condition with red, dry itchy areas
hereditary

Atopic dermatitis

infancy to early adulthood
type of eczema

Atopic dermatitis - symptoms

infants: red itchy, dry patches on cheeks, ooze when scratched
adults: dry, brown rash on creases (elbows, wrists, knees) bleed and crust when scratched

Atopic dermatitis - treat

cannot be cured
corticosteroid creams and antihistamines to help itchiness
moisturizing creams --> aveeno, neutrogena, pears soap

Atopic dermatitis - preventative

take short baths
not hot water
apply cream immediately
cotton clothes
mild soaps

Dandruff

white flakes in adults, crusty yellow scales on baby's scalp (cradle cap)

Dandruff - causes

family history
stress, fatigue, change in weather, oily skin, infrequent shampooing

Dandruff - treat

shampoo with coal tar, sal acid, selenium sulfide, zinc pyrithione, ketoconazole

Head Lice

pediculosis, feed on blood from scalp

Head lice - symptoms

itching near back of neck and ears
nits look like dandruff attached to shaft of hair

head lice - treat

Nix, Kwelleda, R&C
treat entire family, repeat after 7-10 days
wash all clothing towels and bedding

Scabies

bugs that burrow under skin

Scabies - symptoms

severe itching, tiny red bumps, loss of sleep, infection
in folds of fingers, bends a wrists

scabies - treat

Nix or Kwellada cream, apply after bath to the whole body, leave for 8-14 hours
no repeats

Acne

pimples on skin
due to hormonal changes+bacteria+oil glands

Types of acne

pomade acne - oil based hair products (coal tar shampoo)
cosmetic acne - daily use of oily make-up or hairspray
occupational acne - materials used in work environment (coal tar, mineral oil)
acne mechanica - friction of clothing

Prevent acne

- wear loose/cotton clothes
- wash bid
- avoid oil-based products
- remove makeup at bedtime
- wash face after eating

Acne - treat

benzoyl peroxide
antibiotics for severe
low dose birth control for thinning hair, irregular periods, acne

Sunburn

UV rays

sunburn - prevent

use sunscreen with UVA and UVB protection

UVA

longer waves, alters skin colour

UVB

shorter wavelengths, sunburn
burns peak 6-20 hours after exposure

UVC

more carcinogenic,
not from sun, from artificial sources

Photoaging

wrinkles, scaling, looseness

Hyperpigmentary change

hypermelanosis, irregular splotchy skin

Hypopigmentary change

white scar on back of hear and forearms
mostly elderly

Basal cell carcinoma

non metastatic skin tumours
treated in first few months

Squamous cell carcinoma

metastatic
back of hangs, forearm, head and neck

Melanoma

history of 3+ blistering sunburns before 19
change in appearance of lesion indicates
--> large, darker, scaly, itchy
Stage 1 - skin
stage 2 - lymph nodes
stage 3 - distant metastases

Ocular damage

damage to eye from sun
lead to: cataracts, cancer

Types of sunscreen

physical: metal-containing sunscreen that repels UV light, ideal for children
chemical: chemicals absorb rays

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