The branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations.
The mental processes people use to make sense of their social environment.
The effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.
The mental processes we use to form judgements and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people.
The "rules," or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation.
The mental process of categorizing people into groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics.
Implicit Personality Theory
A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors.
The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures.
Blaming the Victim
The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it.
The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
The tendency to attribute one's own behavior to external, situational causes, while attributing the behavior of others to internal, personal causes; especially likely to occur with regard to behaviors that lead to negative outcomes.
The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes.
A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent.
An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict.
A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group.
A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group.
A social group to which one belongs.
A social group to which one does not belong.
Out-Group Homogeneity Effect
The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another.
The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably.
The belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures.
The tendency to adjust one's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to group norms in response to real or imagined group pressure.
Normative Social Influence
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval.
Informational Social Influence
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct.
The performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status.
Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit.
Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless.
A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress.
Diffusion of Responsibility
A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers.
The tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort.
The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance.
The reduction of self-awareness and inhibitions that can occur when a person is part of a group whose members feel anonymous.