California History-Social Science Standards

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Doherty Extra Credit Test

Democracy

People govern themselves through councils and agreed upon laws

Direct democracy

citizens represent themselves directly at councils

Republic

An indirect democracy in which citizens rule through representatives whom they elect; used by ancient Rome

Whose views? Participation in government, natural laws, branches of government, written law

Greco-Roman

Whose views? Worth and dignity, ability to choose between good/bad, responsibility to help others

Judeo-Christian Views

Lovers of wisdom

Philosophers (Ancient Greece)

Who said that a tyrant becomes troublesome when he loves his power so much that he takes drastic measures to maintain it?

Plato (wrote The Republic)

Plato's student, wrote Politics

Aristotle

Tyrant

Any leader who took over a government

Federalism

The national government and the state governments share power

Popular sovereignty

The government gets its authority from the people and reflects their will

Example of Federalism in the world today

South Africa

Example of separation of powers in world today

South Korea

Example of Popular sovereignty in world today

Japanese Constitution

Example of individual rights in world today

United nations Declaration of Human Rights

Which philosopher? Natural rights, governments job to protect rights, gets authority from the people

John Locke of England

Which philosopher? Separation of powers

Montesquieu

Which philosopher? Social contract between citizens/gov,

Rosseau

Who did John Locke influence?

Thomas Jefferson

Who did Montesquieu influence?

James Madison

Who did Rosseau/Locke influence?

Simon Bolivar (Venezuela's liberation from Spanish ruler)

Principles of what? Limited king's power, due process of law, no taxes w/o consent of council

Magna Carta (England, 1215)

Principles of what? Free elections & meetings of parliament, representative governments, no cruel punishment

English Bill of Rights (1689)

Principles of what? unalienable rights, popular sovereignty

American Declaration of Independence (1776)

Why did Industrial Revolution begin in England?

Economic strength, geography and natural resources, population growth, political stability,

Who improved the steam engine?

James Watt

Who invented the cotton gin?

Eli Whitney

Significance of the Bessemer process?

Quickly and cheaply made steel out of iron

Significance of pasteurization?

Increased the shelf life of milk and other products

Who improved electric light?

Thomas Edison

Reasons for biggest population ever at the time of the industrial revolution

18th century agricultural improvements which ended periodic famines that kept down population

Evolution of Work & Labor

Demise of slave trade, immigration, division of labor, union movement

Union

organization that speaks for the workers it represents

Capitalism

Economic system that emphasizes profit and private ownership

Utopianism

People live and work together, sharing goods and properties

Socialism

The factors of production are owned by the people, at least in part, and are used for the benefit of all

Communism

Workers should take control of all the factors of production (type of socialism)

Social Democracy

Government plays a role in the managing production and provides certain social services

Classicism

Sought to imitate arts of ancient Greece/Rome; prized tradition, reason & symmetry

Romanticism

Emphasized love of nature, emotional expression, individual experience, and the importance of ordinary people & folk traditions (developed in early 1800s, widely popular)

Social criticism

A Christmas Carol- Dickens; identifies and expresses concern for the problems in society

Great Britain

colonized more land than any other nation; controlled parts of Europe, Asia, African North America, South America & all of Australia

South America controlled by who in 1800?

Spanish and the Portuguese

Berlin Conference of 1884-1885

European countries met to divide Africa; GB/Ger claimed most;

Philippines main use in 1898

Sugar crops (owned by US)

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