Chap. 10 - Biology 2

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Chapter 10 Review

codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation, termination

Describe the sequence of events of translation.

reverse transcriptase

What is the enzyme that HIV uses to synthesize DNA on an RNA template?

D) transferring nucleotides to rRNA

Which of the following is not a function of tRNA?
A) all of the choices are functions of tRNA
B) joining to only one specific type of amino acid
C) helping to translate codons into amino acids
D) transferring nucleotides to rRNA
E) recognizing the appropriate codons in mRNA

amino acids

What does tRNA transport?

have irregular widths along its length

How would the shape of a DNA molecule change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paired with thymine? The DNA molecule would...

C) The dod idn ote at.

Consider to following sentence: "The dog did not eat." Which one of the following variations of this sentence is most like a reading frame mutation?
A) The did not eat.
B) The did dog not eat.
C) The dod idn ote at.
D) The dog dog did not eat.
E) The dog did dog did not eat.

A) The doe did not eat.

Consider the following sentence: "The dog did not eat." Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a base substitution mutation?
A) The doe did not eat.
B) The dog did not eat.
C) The dog dog did not eat.
D) The did dog not eat.
E) The dog did not.

1) genetic information
2) nucleic acids
3) proteins

Translation consists of the conversion of _____(1)_____ from the language of _____(2)_____ to the language of _____(3)_____.

D) The lysogenic cycle typically results in the rapid lysis of all infected cells

Which of the following statements is false?
A) Sometimes an environmental signal can trigger a switchover from the lysogenic to the lytic cycle.
B) During a lysogenic cycle, viral DNA replication typically occurs without destroying the host cell.
C) The lysogenic cycle always occurs inside of host cells.
D) The lysogenic cycle typically results in the rapid lysis of all infected cells
E) Some prophage genes can cause the transformation of a nonpathogenic bacterium into a form that causes human disease.

shorten the time necessary for DNA replication

Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells serve to..

C) Very few new human diseases have originated in other animals because the genetic differences are too great

Which one of the following is false?
A) RNA viruses tend to have an unusually high rate of mutation because their RNA genomes cannot be corrected by proofreading
B) AIDS was around for decades before becoming a widespread epidemic
C) Very few new human diseases have originated in other animals because the genetic differences are too great
D) Some new viral diseases arise as a result of a mutation of existing viruses
E) New viral diseases often emerge when a virus infects a new host species

DNA polymerase

What enzyme catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand?

B) phage

One type of virus that infects bacteria is called a(n)...
A) filovirus
B) phage
C) rhinovirus
D) ebola
E) mage

DNA, RNA, protein

What is the sequence of the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular component?

D) An mRNA molecule transcribed from DNA is shorter than the genetic message it carries.

Which one of the following is false?
A) During the first step of initiation, an mRNA molecule binds to a small ribosomal subunit
B) Translation consists of initiation, elongation, and termination
C) During polypeptide initiation, an mRNA, the first amino acid attached to its tRNA, and the two subunits of a ribosome are brought together
D) An mRNA molecule transcribed from DNA is shorter than the genetic message it carries.
E) During the second step of initiation, a large ribosomal subunit binds to a small ribosomal subunit.

prophage

Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a...

R plasmids

In many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on...

a twisted rope ladder

The shape of a DNA molecule is most like...

3

The directions for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of _____ nucleotide(s) in an RNA molecule.

E) RNA uses the sugar dextrose

Which one of the following is false?
A) RNA is a nucleic acid
B) One RNA molecule can include 4 different nucleotides in its structure
C) RNA molecules have a sugar-phosphate backbone
D) RNA uses the nitrogenous vase uracil
E) RNA uses the sugar dextrose

initiation of a new RNA molecule

What occurs when RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter DNA?

a mutation

Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called...

nucleotides

DNA and RNA are polymers of...

Hershey and Chase

Who conducted experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages?

B) The cycle typically leads to the lysis of the host cell

Which of the following features would characterize a lytic cycle of a viral infection?
A) The viral genes typically remain inactive once they are inside the host cell
B) The cycle typically leads to the lysis of the host cell
C) The cycle typically ends when the host bacterium divides
D) The virus reproduces outside of the host cell
E) The viral DNA is inserted into a bacterial chromosome

in the cytoplasm

Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells?

because DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing molecule

Why does a DNA strand grow only in the 5' to 3' direction?

only the DNA

When a T2 bacteriophage infects and E. coli cell, what part of the phage enters the bacterial cytoplasm?

B) using a photographic negative to make a positive image

The copying mechanism of DNA is most like...
A) joining together links to make a chain
B) using a photographic negative to make a positive image
C) threading beads onto a string
D) mixing flour, sugar, and water to make bread dough
E) carving a figure out of wood

transformation

In the 1920s, Frederick Griffith conducted an experiment in which he mixed dead cells of a bacterial strain that can cause pneumonia with live cells of a bacterial strain that cannot. When he cultured the live cells, some of the daughter colonies proved able to cause pneumonia. This experiment shows that what process is possible?

GCCATG

If one strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding strand would be what?

a mutagen

A physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called...

a terminator

The signal that marks the end of a gene and causes transcription to stop is...

AIDS

HIV is responsible for...

transcription

The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called...

RNA polymerase

What enzyme catalyzes the linking together of RNA nucleotides to form RNA?

C) some amino acids are produced from more than one codon

A base substitution mutation in a gene sometimes does not result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this?
A) the rarity of such mutations
B) the mutation affects only the sequence of the protein's amino acids, so the protein stays the same
C) some amino acids are produced from more than one codon
D) the fact that such mutations are usually accompanied by a complementary deletion
E) a correcting mechanism that is part of the mRNA molecule

B) introns are added to the RNA

Which one of the following does not happen to eukaryotic RNA?
A) exons are spliced together
B) introns are added to the RNA
C) a small cap of extra nucleotides is added to one end of the RNA
D) a long tail of extra nucleotides is added to the other end of the RNA
E) the completed RNA molecule is exported out of the nucleus

D) DNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil

Which of the following is false?
A) DNA uses the sugar deoxyribose
B) DNA molecules have a sugar-phosphate backbone
C) One DNA molecule can include 4 different nucleotides in its structure
D) DNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil
E) DNA is a nucleic acid

1) DNA molecule
2) new strand

DNA replication uses each strand of a _____(1)_____ as a template for the creation of a _____(2)_____

50

When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains _____ percent of the parent DNA.

D) The sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA strand is restricted by the base-pairing rules

Which of the following is false?
A) The DNA molecule has a uniform diameter
B) In a DNA molecule, adenine bonds to thymine and guanine to cytosine
C) Watson and Crick received a Nobel Prize for their description of the structure of DNA
D) The sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA strand is restricted by the base-pairing rules
E) The DNA molecule is in the form of a double helix.

C) There are many successful ways to rid infected plants of a virus

Which one of the following statements about plant viruses is false?
A) Many plant viruses are rod-shaped with a spiral arrangement of proteins surrounding the nucleic acid
B) Once in a plant, a virus can spread from cell to cell through plasmodesmata
C) There are many successful ways to rid infected plants of a virus
D) to infect a plant, a virus must first get past the plant's epidermis
E) The genetic material in most plant viruses is RNA

a drug is injected with a hypodermic needle

The way that genetic material of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium is most like the way that...

E) all of the choices are required for translation to occur

Which of the following is/are required for translation to occur?
A) tRNA
B) ribosomes
C) sources of energy, including ATP
D) various enzymes and protein "factors"
E) all of the choices are required for translation to occur

B) the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine

Which of these is always true with regard to a DNA double helix?
A) the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of uracil
B) the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine
C) the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of cytosine, and the amount of guanine is equals to the amount of thymine
D) the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of uracil, and the amount of thymine is equal to the amount of cytosine
E) the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of guanine, and the amount of thymine is equal to the amount of cytosine

A) a virus is generally considered to be alive because it is cellular and can reproduce on its own

Which one of the following statements is false?
A) a virus is generally considered to be alive because it is cellular and can reproduce on its own
B) once a person is infected the the herpesvirus, the virus remains permanently latent in the body
C) the host cell provides most of the tools and raw materials for viral multiplication
D) viruses can enter a host cell when the protein molecules on the outside of the virus fit into receptor molecules on the outside of the cell
E) herpesviruses and the virus that causes AIDS can remain latent inside our cells for long periods of time

nucleotides

The monomers of DNA and RNA are...

5

We would expect that a 15-nucleotide sequence will direct the production of a polypeptide that consists of ________ amino acids.

A) reproduces inside the host cell's mitochondria

Which one of the following statements about herpesviruses is false? Herpesviruses...
A) reproduces inside the host cell's mitochondria
B) acquire their envelopes from the host cell nuclear membrane
C) may cause cold sores to appear during times of physical or emotional stress
D) are DNA viruses
E) may remain latent for long periods of time while inside the host cell nucleus

C) Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells

Which one of the following is false?
A) Ribosomes function as factories that coordinate the functioning of mRNA and tRNA.
B) Polypeptides form proteins that determine the appearance and function of the cell and organism
C) Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
D) Eukaryotic mRNA is processed in several ways before export out of the nucleus
E) The codons in a gene specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

the nucleus

Where does transcription occur in eukaryotic cells?

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