Psychology Final

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Sensation

The process through which the senses detect environmental stimuli and transmit them to the brain is called _____.

Perception

_______ is the process by which the brain actively organizes and interprets sensory information.

Perception

The process of ______ involves organizing and interpreting incoming sensory information.

Sensory receptors

____ are specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to afferent nerves and the brain.

Mechanoreceptors

Which of the following classes of sensory receptors play an important role in detecting pressure, vibration, movement, touch, and hearing?

Photoreceptors

Which of the following classes of receptors provide information about sight and the detection of light?

Absolute threshold

You are studying in your dorm room, but your neighbor is blasting the television in the adjacent room. When you gently request that your neighbor turn the volume down until you cannot hear it, you are asking your neighbor to make the volume less than your ____.

Can influence thoughts, feelings, behavior

Subliminally presented stimuli ____.

Difference threshold

The smallest intensity of a stimulus that can detect 50 percent of the time is ____.

Difference threshold

The minimal change in stimulation that is required to detect whether one stimulus differs from another is the ____.

Not supported by results of scientific research

Is the existence of extrasensory perception (ESP) supported by research?

Wavelength corresponds with hue, amplitude corresponds with the brightness

Regarding light, wavelength corresponds with the ____ and amplitude corresponds with the ____.

Iris

The ____ is the colored part of the eye.

Retina

Rods and cones are located in the ____.

Specialized receptor cells that enable us to see color

Cones are ____.

Help maintain shape of the eye & protect from injury

The major purpose of the sclera is to ____.

Colored part of eye, contains muscles that control size of pupils

The iris is the ____.

Retina

As light enters the eye, eventually it reaches the light-sensitive ____ at the back of the eye.

Optic nerve

The ____, which consists of the axons of the ganglion cells, carries visual information to the brain for further processing.

Fovea

Toward the center of the retina, there is an area that contains only cones. This area is called the ____.

Blind spot

The ____ is the area near the center of the retina where there are no rods and no cones.

Occipital lobes

Visual information is processed primarily in the visual cortex, which is located in the ____.

Opponent process theory

Which of the following theories of vision can best explain the occurrence of afterimages (i.e., sensations that remain after a stimulus is removed)?

Nature of color blindness depends on three kinds of cones that don't work (Green, Red, Blue)

Which of the following statements about research on color blindness is true?

Perceiving 3 dimensions

Depth perception involves ____.

Linear perspective

Which depth cue accounts for why parallel lines appear to grow closer together the farther away they are?

Decibels

Which of the following is the unit of measurement for assessing loudness?

Frequency; amplitude

The pitch of a sound is a function of the sound wave's ____, whereas the loudness of a sound is a function of the sound wave's ____.

Pinnae

The primary function of the ____ is to collect sounds and channel them into the inner ear.

Timbre

Your ability to distinguish a trumpet from a trombone or your mother's voice from your sister's voice is due to the ____ of these stimuli.

Cause the eardrum to vibrate

When sound waves enter the ear canal, they first cause ____.

Middle ear

When you hear any sound, your eardrum vibrates. These vibrations are then transferred to the inner ear by the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. These three bones are all located in the ____.

Limit exposure to loud music; don't listen to music that loud for more than 90 minutes

Tina loves listening to her favorite music on her iPod. Most of the time she plays her iPod at 90 percent volume. According to research on "safe sound," what should Tina do to increase the odds that her love of loud music does not cause hearing damage?

Frequency theory; Of frequency & place theory

____ best explains the perception of low-frequency sounds (below 1,000 times per second), whereas ____ best explains those high-frequency sounds (above 1,000 times per second).

Touch, temperature, and pain

The cutaneous senses consist of sensory receptors that provide information about ____.

Cochlear implants, like hearing aids, work by amplifying sound

Which of the following statements about cochlear implants is FALSE?

Touch, temperature, and pain

The cutaneous senses consist of sensory receptors that provide information about ____.

Feel/touch; see/hear/taste

Newborns can ____ better than they can ____.

Thermoreceptors

You touch your baby's forehead and realize that he feels warm and must have a fever. What type of sensory receptors relayed information about your baby's temperature to your brain?

Hotness

When something warm touches your skin, you feel warmth. WHen something cold touches your skin, you feel coldness. If things both warm and cold touch your skin, stimulating adjacent thermoreceptors for warmth and cold, you will feel ____.

Neurotransmitters that function as neutral opiates in producing pleasure and pain

Endorphins are ____.

Papillae

Taste buds, the sensory receptors for tatse, are located in the ____.

Olfactory epithelium

The lining of the nasal cavity that contains a sheet of receptor cells for smell is known as the ____.

The sense of smell takes a more direct neural pathway to emotion and memory centers in the brain than do other senses

Smell can elicit more vivid memories than the other senses. What is the reason for this?

Kinesthetic; vestibular

The ____ senses provide information about movement, posture, and orientation, whereas the ____ senses provide information about balance and movement.

The muscle fibers and joints

Sensory receptors for the kinesthetic sense are located in what part of the body?

Homeostatis

According to drive-reduction theory, a drive is created when the body's balanced internal state is disturbed. This balanced state is called ____.

Homeostatis (to maintain)

According to drive-reduction theory, the goal of drive reduction is ____.

Homeostatis

After staying up all night to study for a math exam, you return to your dorm room after the test and sleep for seven hours. Your sleep behavior was regulated by the body's tendency to maintain ____.

Glucose, insulin, leptin (all of these)

Which chemical substances plays an important role in hunger, eating, and satiety?

Leptin

____ is the chemical released by fat cells that decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure or metabolism.

Self-actualization

The highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs is ____.

No, anxiety may cause false postives & people can sometimes "beat" ploygraphs.

Tom is interested in working for an intelligence branch of the government, and a polygraph test is part of the interview process. Though Tom intends to be honest, he is worried that the polygraph will say he is lying when he isn't. Tom's friend Cameron assures Tom that polygraph tests are infallible. Is Cameron right? Why?

Different emotions can cause same physiological changes.

What is the main problem with using polygraph results as an indication of whether or not a person is lying?

Amygdala

Which of the following brain structures plays an important role in the experience of fear?

Cannon-bard theory.

According to the ____, emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.

Experience physiological and emotional reactions simultaneously.

The Cannon-Bard theory predicts that after witnessing a shocking event, a person will ____.

Run and experience fear as result of physical change in their bodies after seeing a scary bear.

Tim and Margaret are enjoying a picnic on the edge of a large forest. Suddenly a huge black bear invades their space and heads for the picnic basket. According to the James Lange theory of emotions, the couple will ____.

James Lange theory

Monica has had a very emotionally draining day, but she really isn't sure what she is feeling. After taking a quiet moment to herself she starts to cry and after observing this bodily reaction, she decides that she must be sad. This example of emotional recognition is most consistent with the ____ theory of emotion.

James Lange theory

According to the ____ theory of emotion, emotion occurs after physiological reactions.

James Lange theory

Which theory would suggest that you feel happy because you are laughing?

Facial expressions for certain emotions don't differ significantly across cultures.

Which of the following best describes cultural differences in the facial expression of emotion?

Insulin

Which of the following plays an important role in glucose control?

You feel hungry.

What happens when your blood sugar level gets low?

Lateral hypothalamus; Ventromedial hypothalamus

When stimulated, this part of the brain ____ increases eating. Stimulation of this part of the brain ____ reduces hunger and restricts eating.

Instincts are learned behavioral responses (FALSE).

Which of the following statements about instincts is FALSE?

Hypothalamus

Motivation for sexual behavior is centered in this part of the brain.

Drive

A(n) ____ is an aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need.

Excitement phase

The beginning of the process of erotic responsiveness occurs during the ____ phase of the human sexual response pattern.

Estrogen; Androgens

____ are the class of sex hormones that are predominate in females. ____ are the class of sex hormones that are predominate in males.

3-15 seconds

According to research on the human sexual response pattern, an orgasm lasts for about ____.

Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.

What is the correct order of the human sexual response pattern?

Marriage and monogamy

According to recent research on sexual patterns of behavior in the United States, what rules sexual behavior?

Combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors.

An individual's sexual orientation is determined by what factors?

Competence, autonomy, and relatedness.

According to self-determination theory, people are most fulfilled when they satisfy which three fundamental needs?

Individualistic cultures; Collectivist cultures

____ emphasize individual achievement, independence, and self-reliance, whereas ____emphasize affiliation, cooperation, and interdependence.

Intrinsic motivation; Extrinsic motivation

____ is based on internal needs (e.g., competence or autonomy). ____ is based on external incentives such as rewards and punishments.

Intrinsic motivation

Self-determination theory maintains that when our behaviors are influenced by our needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, we experience ____.

Extrinsic motivation

Annie's mother pays her $5 for every book she reads. Annie is reading like crazy, not because she loves books, but rather because she enjoys spending her money on candy and toys. Annie is demonstrating ____ motivation.

Reduce intrinsic motivation

Adding external rewards to a situation in which the person is already intrinsically motivated to perform usually results in ____.

Valued by both cultures (Japanese & American)

Leiko is from Japan. Jill is from the United States. Cross-cultural evidence suggests that the needs emphasized by self-determination theory will by valued by ____.

Focus on something other than forbidden activity (avoid it at all means).

Research on delayed gratification indicates that the best way to resist temptation is to ____.

Physiological arousal, conscious experience, and behavioral expression.

Emotion is a feeling or affect that can involve ____.

Disgust

According to recent research, which of the following emotions is NOT associated with increased heart rate?

When, where, and how.

Display rules are sociocultural standards that determine ____ emotions should be expressed.

Display rule

Soccer players are expected to congratulate and shake hands with the opposing team, even when their team loses the game. This is an example of ____.

Valence & arousal level

According to the circumplex model of mood, a wheel of mood states can be crated from the two independent dimensions of ____.

Negative affect; Positive affect

The term ____ refers to emotions such as anger, guilt, and sadness, whereas the term ____ refers to emotions such as joy, happiness, and interest.

Highly resilient individual will experience more positive emotion than the less resilient individual.

When comparing a highly resilient individual to a less resilient individual, what might you expect regarding the experience of emotion?

Hedonic treadmill

According to the concept of ____, any aspect of life that enhances our positive feelings is likely to do so for only a short period of time.

Have a short term high from her win & happiness will eventually return back to its set point.

Alyssa just won the lottery, According to the concept of the hedonic treadmill, Alyssa will ____.

Keep grad. journal, focus on trying to be happier, avoiding failure.

Research shows that ____ can increase happiness.

Valence; Arousal level

The ____ of an emotion refers to whether it feels pleasant or unpleasant. The ____ of an emotion is the degree to which the emotion is reflected in an individual's being active, engaged, or excited versus more passive, relatively disengaged, or calm.

Weber's law

Linda is studying while listening to her iPod. She notices that when she raises the volume 5 decibels when the volume is initially low, the change is very noticeable. However, when the volume is initially high, increasing the volume by 5 decibles doesn't result in as noticeable of a change in sound. This phenomenon is best explained by ____.

False alarm

You are playing a new X-Box game in which you are pretending to train a s a police officer. Your task is to correctly identify and shoot the criminals you encounter and protect the lives of innocent civilians. You begin walking down the street when various individuals come out from behind buildings and around corners. In your first encounter you erroneously shoot an innocent civilian. According to signal detection theory, your response to the stimulus would be classified as a ____.

Sensory adaptation

You arrive at your friend's apartment for a big party at the end of the semester. When you first arrive, the music is so loud that it almost hurts your ears. After a couple of hours, even though the music is still at the same volume, it no longer bothers you or seems that loud. This change in your sensations describes the process of ____.

Sensory adaptation

Jennifer is a chain smoker. When her friend Irene, a non-smoker, gets in the car with Jennifer she is overwhelmed by the smell of smoke. One day she mentioned this fact to Jennifer who was suprised by the comment. Jennifer claims that when she sniffs her hair and clothing she can't sense the smoky scent. Jennifer's inability to detect the smoky scent is an example of ____.

Yerkes-dodson law

Darrin is a good piano player. When he is alone, his arousal is low and he often gets distracted and makes mistakes. When he is in a recital with strangers, he sometimes gets too nervous and aroused and also makes mistakes. His best performances are typically at home when family and friends are nearby, and his arousal level is moderate. The variations in Darrin's performance can be best explained by what theory/law ____?

Children who focused on non-cookie related thoughts were better able to delay gratification than those focused on cookie related thoughts.

Walter Mischel conducted a classical study on how children delay gratification. Children were left alone in a room with a tempting cookie in their reach. Researchers told the children that they could ring a bell and eat the cookie, or if they waited until the experimenter returned, they would get two cookies. In truth, the experimenter did not return, as researchers were interested in measuring how long children would wait before eating the cookie. Results of this self-control dilemma showed that ____.

Social thinking, influences, and relations.

Social psychology is the study of ____.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Parents warn a new babysitter that their son, Dennis is very aggressive and mischievous. As a result of this initial expectation, the babysitter starts calling Dennis "Dennis the Menace," and he behaves in ways that elicit aggressive and mischievous behaviors from Dennis. This example best demonstrates the phenomenon called ____.

Fundamental attribution error

The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of inner dispositions upon another's behavior is called ____.

They are a clumsy person.

You watch as another student stumbles and drops her books in the hall. According to the fundamental attribution error, how would you explain the student's behavior?

Cognitive dissonance

____ is the tension that arises when people realize that their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes.

False consensus effect

Although Jeff frequently exceeds the speed limit by at least 10 mph, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other drivers do the same. This belief best illustrates the ____ effect.

Tend to show high levels of psychological well-being.

Individuals who have positive illusions about the self ____.

Positive illusion

Despite evidence to the contrary, Denise thinks she is smarter than most of the people in her class. Denise's unfounded attitude about herself is an example of a(n) ____ illusion.

Social comparison

"Am I as popular as Cathy?" This question is an example of gaining self-knowledge through the process of ____.

Individuals try to align their attitudes & behavior.

Cognitive dissonance theory states that in order to reduce dissonance, individuals ____.

Cognitive dissonance

When people try to confront Alfred about drinking too much alcohol, he replies, "Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I'll die having a good time." This statement, which is an example of self-justification, illustrates Alan's attempt to reduce cognitive ____.

Self-perception theory

____ theory contends that behaviors can cause attitudes.

You can look at you behavior.

According to self-perception theory, if you're not sure how you feel about something, how can you find out?

Engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument.

Central route persuasion involves ____.

Central route persuasion

Allison is at a workshop, where a presenter is attempting to persuade people to make a rather risky but potentially profitable financial investment. The arguments for investing appeal to logic and rationality. After slowly and carefully considering the presenter's arguments, Allison finds this person's idea sounds compelling and decides to invest. This example best demonstrates the ____ persuasion.

Foot-in-the-door technique

According to ____, people who have first agreed to a small request tend to comply later with a larger request.

Foot-in-the-door technique

The advertising committee for a politician is going door to door and asking people to put a big ugly election sign on their lawn. If the people refuse, they ask them if they would consider putting a smaller sign on the lawn. The staff is using ____ technique.

Empathy.

What is the key social emotion involved with altruism?

Concept of reciprocity

Robert regularly gives donations of blood to the Red Cross because he received a life-saving transfusion when he was in a car accident two years ago. Robert's helping behavior is best explained by ____.

When someone is witnessing an emergency and there are several other bystanders present.

The bystander effect is most likely to occur ____.

Bystander effect

In 1964, Kitty Genovese was brutally stabbed to death in front of her apartment building. It took the assailant approximately 30 minutes to kill Genovese. Police reports showed that although 38 neighbors witnessed the event, no one helped or called the police. According to you knowledge of social psychology, this incident can be best explained by ____.

Helping behavior

Diffusion of responsibility is most likely to influence ____.

Serotonin

Aggression is associated with low levels of which neurotransmitter?

Frontal lobes

Deficits in the functioning of which part of the brain are associated with aggression?

Testosterone

The hormone that is typically implicated in aggressive behavior is ____.

Physical pain, heat, and fear of being personally attacked.

What factors INCREASES the likelihood of an aggressive response?

Observational learning theory

Robert, a 9-year-old-boy, loves watching wrestling on TV. Last night he imitated several of the aggressive moves he saw on TV by acting them out with his little brother. What theory best explains William's behavior?

Children who frequently play violent video games are more likely to engage in aggressive delinquent behaviors.

Based on the information presented in your textbook, what is the most likely outcome experience by children who frequently play violent video games?

Normative social influence

____ is based on a person's desire to be accepted by the group.

Normative social influence

Joyce has the potential to be an honor student but frustrates her teachers because of her actions. Rather than work to succeed, she tends to "dummy down" to act more like the students tnat she hangs out with. She has at times answered questions incorrectly in class on purpose to be more like her friends. Joyce's behavior is an example of ____.

When the victim was made to seem more human.

Results of MIligrim's experiment showed that participants were more likely to fail to comply with the authority figure's requests when ____.

Deindividuation

The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group is known as ____.

Social contagion

The effects of others on our behavior can take the form of ____, imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas.

Social contagion

You are studying in a quiet but crowded library when you suddnely start coughing. You soon notice others doing the same thing. This is an example of ____.

Tendency for people to show less effort when in a group.

Social loafing refers to ____.

Social loafing

Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of ____.

Risky shift

The tendency for a group decision to be more riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members is known as ____.

Ethnocentrism

The assumption that ethnic out-groups are not only different, but that other groups are inferior to your group, is called ____.

Prejudice; Discrimination

____ is an unjustified negative ATTITUDE toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group. ____ is an unjustified negative or harmful ACTION toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group.

Discrimination

In a recent study (M. Bertrand & S. Mullainathan 2003), researchers sent 5,000 fictitious resumes to companies advertising in Chicago and Boston. Applicants with "black-sounding" names were 50 percent LESS likely to be called for an interview than those with "white-sounding" names. This unfair treatment based on the group ti which someone belongs (or seems to belong) is called ____.

Explicit racism; Implicit racism

____ is reflected in a person's conscious and openly shared additude, which might be measured using a questionnaire. ____ refers to attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level, thus they must be measured with a method that does not require awareness.

Proximity

The mere exposure effect provides on possible explanation for why ____ increases attraction.

His roommate (Bill)

Tom has left home and is attending college in a city far away from home where he doesn't know anybody.According to the principle of proximity, Tom will be most likely to make friends with ____.

Romantic love; Affectionate love

Social psychologists believe that ____ is particularly strong during the early stages of a relationship, and that ____ increases as the relationship grows and matures.

Sexual attraction

Accoding to Ellen Berscheid's research, ____ is the most important ingredient of romantic love.

Affectionate love

When individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person, they are displaying ____.

Men fall in love more quickly and easily than women.

Research on gender and love shows that men ____.

Social exchange theory

According to ____, your feelings about a relationship are a function of how fair you feel the relationship is or how much you feel you get out as much as you put in.

Internal attribution; External attribution

Jack and John were recently dumped by their girlfriends. Jack believes that his girlfriend broke up with him because she is selfish and unhappy person, whereas John believes his girlfriend broke up with him because she had to attend to a family emergency and could not make commitment right now. Jack is making a(n) ____ attribution about his girlfriend's behavior, whereas John is making a(n) ____ attribution.

Self-serving bias

Whenever Claudia gets an A on her psychology exam, she believes it was due to the fact that she is an intelligent, hard-working student. However, when she receives a C on an exam, she attributes her behavior to the situation and thus blames the grade on her instructor's ineffective teaching style and poor choice of test questions. Claudia's behavior is an example of ____ bias.

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