Socy 121 Exam 3 Study Guide

26 terms by JustSayJose

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Emic perspective

insiders perspective ( more meaningful to people on inside )

Etic Perspective

examining society using concepts, categories, and rules derived from science; an outsider's perspective, which produces analyses that members of the society being studied may not find meaningful

Religion

a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

Individualistic cults

Cults based on personal relationships between specific individuals and specific supernatural powers

Shamanistic cults

where a specialist (shaman) serves as an intermediary between the supernatural and other members of society

Communal cults

practices whereby groups hold rituals for large parts of the communities where the focus is on the well being of the community

Ecclesiastical cults

societies where there are specialists who lead religious groups; often have a full time specialist, a mediator between the community and the supernatural

World view

the way we think and feel about the world, reality, our experiences

Cosmology

the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe

Rituals

another name for ceremonies or rites

Taboos

prohibitions against behaviors that most members of a group consider to be so repugnant they are unthinkable

Shaman

an ancient doctor, healer, or priest, they were called upon for religious ceremonies

Priest

a clergyman in Christian churches who has the authority to perform or administer various religious rites

World renewal ceremony

the major gathering of riverside villages, redistributed resources to poorer tribal members and appeased supernatural forces in order to avert floods, earthquakes, and failure of the salmon run.

Rites Of passage

social rituals that mark the transition between developmental stages, especially between childhood and adulthood

Cultural systems

subsistence, settlement, economics, politics, social structure, kinship/marriage, sex/gender, religion

Linked changes

Changes in one part of a culture brought about by changes in other parts of the culture.

Inventions/Innovations

change from recombination of existing features within a cult

Diffusion

The process of change in which cultural elements (an object, idea, or behavior pattern) are spread from one society to another society; willingly adopted without force

Acculturation

The process of culture change that occurs when 2 societies come into intensive , sustained contact with one another, usually with a dominate subordinate relationship which means that the changes are often forced onto the subordinate group under external pressure from the dominant group.

Globalization

The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.

Cultural Survival

dedicated to desending the human right of indigenous people.

Anthropology

science dealing with the origin, races, customs, and beliefs of humankind

Sociology

the study and classification of human societies

Applied anthropology

the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client

Applied sociology

The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations.

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