Chapter 19: Blood

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Martini-Nath Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology Eigth Edition

blood

A specialized fluid connective tissue that contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix.

dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes

One function of blood is that it transports:

pH and composition of interstitial fluids

One function of blood is that it regulates:

fluid loss at injury sites

One function of blood is that it restricts:

toxins and pathogens

One function of blood is that it defends against:

body temperature

One function of blood is that it stabilizes:

Plasma

Blood is a fluid connective tissue with a matrix called:

formed elements

Blood cells and cell fragments suspended in plasma make up this:

red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

These are the three formed elements in whole blood:

erythrocytes

Another name for red blood cells.

red blood cells

These are the most abundant blood cells and are essential for the transport of oxygen in the blood.

leukocytes

Another name for white blood cells.

white blood cells

These are less numerous than RBC's and participate in the body's defense mechanisms.

platelets

These are small, membrane-bound cell fragments that contain enzymes and other substances important to the process of clotting.

Hemopoiesis (hematopoiesis)

formed elements are produced through the process of:

Myeloid and lymphoid

These two populations of stem cells are responsible for the production of all kinds of formed elements.

100.4

What is the temperature of blood in °F

5

Blood is ____times more viscous than water.

5-6

How many liters of blood does the adult male contain?

4-5

How many liters of blood does the adult female contain?

92

What percentage of the volume does water account for in plasma?

The levels of respiratory gases and the concentrations and types of dissolved proteins

What are the primary differences between plasma and interstitial fluid?

Albumins, globulins, and fibrinogens

What are the three major types of plasm proteins?

albumins

This accounts for roughly 60% of the plasma proteins.

Albumins

This is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure of plasma and are important in the tranport of fatty acids, thyroid horomones, some steroid hormones, and other substances.

globulins

These account for approximately 35% of proteins in plasma.

immunoglobulins

Another name for antibodies

globulins

Importnat plasma _____ include antibodies.

Transport globulins

These bind small ions, hormones, and compounds that might otherwise be lost at the kidneys or that have very low solubility in water.

transport globulins

Hormone-binding proteins, metalloproteins, apolipoproteins, and steroid-binding proteins are all examples of what?

hromone-binding proteins

These provide a reserve of hormones in the bloodstream.

metalloproteins

These transport metal ions.

apolipoproteins

These carry triglycerides and other lipids in the blood.

steroid-binding proteins

These transport steroid hormones in the blood.

fibrinogen

This major type of plasma protein functinos in clotting.

4

what percent of plasma proteins does fibrinogen account for?

fibrin

Under certain conditions, fibrinogen molecules interact, forming large, insoluble strands of ____ that are the basic framwork for a clot.

serum

When preventing a blood clot in a sample of blood the clotting proteins are removed and this is what is left behind.

90

The liver synthesizes and releases more than ___% of the plasma proteins.

lymphocytes

plasma cells are derived from:

4.5-6.3

In an adult male, 1 microliter of whole blood contains____ million RBC's

4.2-5.5

In an adult female, 1 microliter of whole blood contains ____ million RBC's

1/3

RBC's account fo roughly what percent of all the cells in the body?

hematocrit

This is the percentage of whole blood volume contributed by formed elements.

42 and 46

The average percentage of hematocrit in males and females is how much?

androgens

What accounts for the difference in percentage of hematocrit in males and females?

1000

Whole blood contains how many RBCs for every 1 WBC?

Volume of Packed red cells (VPRC) or packed cell volume (PCV)

Hematocrit is commonly reported as the ____ because it contains mostly RBCs.

decrease

Hematocrit increases during dehydration, owing to a ____ in plasma volume.

rouleaux

The 'stacks' of RBC's is known as:

120

The life span of a RBC is usually less than ____ days due to the lack of internal organelles.

anaerobic metabolism of glucose

Because RBCs lack mitochondria, they obtain energy by:

Hemoglobin

Molecules of ____ account for more than 95% of a RBCs intracellular proteins.

Hemoglobin

This is responsible for the cell's ability to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.

alpha and beta

Each Hb molecule has 2___chains and 2___ chains of polypeptides.

heme

Each Hb chain contains a single molecule of ___, a non-protein pigment complex.

oxyhemoglobin

Each heme unit holds an iron ion in such a way that the iron can interact with oxygen molecule, forming _____

deoxyhemoglobin

A hemoglobin molecule whose iron is not bound to oxygen is called ______

280

How many million Hb molecules does each red blood cell contain?

4

How many heme UNITS does each hemoglobin contain?

carbaminohemoglobin

When alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin bind to carbon dioxide the form:

Anemia

if the hematocrit is low or the Hb content of RBCs is reduced, the resulting condition is called:

phagocytes

These engulf the RBCs after they are ruptured or damaged (usually about 120 days)

sickle cell anemia

This results from a mutation affecting the amino acid sequence of the beta chains in Hb molecule.

hemolyze

Macrophages of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor the condition of circulating RBC's generally recognizing and engulfing them before they ____, or rupture

macrophages

____ of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor the condition of RBC and engulf them before they hemolyze.

hemolysis

when this occurs, the Hb breaks down, and the alpha and beta chains are filtered by the kidneys and eliminated in urine.

hemoglobinuria

When abnormally large numbers of RBCs break down in the bloodstream, urine may turn red or brown, this is called:

hematuria

The presence of intact RBCs in urine- a sign called ____ occurs only after kidney damage or damage to vessels along the urinary tract.

disassembled and then either metabolized or absorbed by other cells

What happens to globular proteins when RBCs get recycled.

biliverdin

During recycling of RBCs, each heme unit is stripped of its iron and converted to:

urobilinogens and stercobilinogens

In the large intestine, bacteria convert bilirubin to related pigments called:

urobilins

Urine is yellow because it contains:

urobilins and stercobilins

Feces is yellow-brow or brown because it contains:

urobilins and stercobilins

Upon exposure to oxygen, some of the urogilinogens and stercobilinogens are converted to:

transferrin

Iron extracted from heme molecules may be bound and stored in a phagocytic cell or released into the bloodstream, where it binds to _____

transferrins

Excess____ are removed in the liver and speen and the iron is stored in two special protein-iron complexes.

ferritin and hemosiderin

These are the two special protein-iron complexes that excess iron are stored in:

vessels of embryonic yolk sac

What is the primary site of blood formation for the first eight weeks of a developing fetus?

erythropoiesis

this is the process of red blood cell formation.

myeloid tissue

Erythropoiesis occurs where?

yellow bone marrow

These are marrow areas containing a fatty tissue known as:

red marrow

During extreme stimulation such as severe blood loss, areas of yellow marrow conver to _____ to increase RBC production.

hemocytoblasts

This is also known as multipotent stem cells in bone marrrow

myeloid and lymphoid

These are the 2 stem cells produced by hemocytoblasts

myeloid stem cell

These divide to produce RBCs and several classes of white blood cells.

lymphoid stem cells

these divide to produce the various classes of lymphocytes.

proerythroblasts erythroblast

Cells destined to become RBCs first differentiate into _____and then proceed through various ____ stages.

erythroblast

These actively synthesize hemoglobin and are named based on total size, amount of hemoglobin present, and size and appearance fo the nucleus.

normoblast

after 4 days of differentiation, the erythroblast is called a ____

reticulocyte

When the erythroblast becomes a normoblast and shed its nucleus it becomes a:

B12, B6, and folic acid

What are the three vitamins required for erythropoiesis?

amino acids, iron, and vitamins

For erythropoiesis to proceed normally, the red bone marrow must recieve adequate supplies of _______ required for protein synthesis.

pernicious anemia

If vitamin B12 is not obtained from the diet, normal stem cell divisions cannot occur and _____ results.

Erythropoietin

This is aka erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone and is a glycoprotein, formed by the kidneys and liver that appears in the plasma when peripheral tissues are exposed to low Oxygen levels.

hypoxia

The state of low tissue oxygen levels is called:

erythropoietin

this is released during anemia, when blood flow to the kidneys declines, when oxygen content of the lungs declines, and when the respiratory surfaces of the lungs are damaged.

erythropoietin

This stimulates increased cell division rates in erythroblasts and in the stem cells that produce erythroblasts and speeds up the maturation of RBCs.

blood type

this is a classification determined by the presence or absence of specific surface antigens in RBC plasma membranes.

agglutinogens

Surface antigens on your own RBCs:

agglutinins

Plasma contains antibodies, sometimes called ____ that will attack the antigens on foreign RBCs.

agglutination

What it is called when foreign cells clump together.

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