Primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system; also present at somatic neuromuscular junctions and at sympathetic preanglionic nerves
Enzyme that degrades acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft, enhancing effects of the neurotransmitter
Autonomic nervous system
Portion of the peripheral nervous system that governs involuntary actions of the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
Class of agents secreted in response to stress that include epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, involved in neurotransmission
Central nervous system (CNS)
Division of the nervous system consisiting of the brain and spinal cord
Fight or flight response
Characteristic set of signs and symptoms produced when the sympathetic nervous system is activated, readies the body for an immediate response to a potential threat
The juncture between two multipolar neurons located outside of the central nervous system (CNS) where axon terminals from the first neuron make contact with cell bodies and extensions of the second neuron
Motor disorders caused by a destruction of nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscles and characterized by profound muscular fatigue
Type of cholinergic receptor found in ganglia of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system
Portion of the autonomic nervous system that is active during periods of rest and that results in the rest-or-relaxation response.
Peripheral nervous system
Division of the nervous system containing all nervous tissue outside the CNS, including the autonomic nervous system, including sensory and motor neurons
Automatic nerve after the ganglionic synapse transmitting impulses to the target tissue
Automatic nerve before the ganglionic synapse carrying impulses from the spinal cord
Signs and symptoms produced when the parasympathetic nervous system is activated
Sympathetic nervous system
Portion of the autonomic system that is active during periods of stress and results in the fight-or-flight response
Junction between two neurons consisting of a presynaptic nerve, a synaptic cleft, and a postynaptic nerve
Process by which a neurotransmitter reaches receptors to regenerate the action potential
Autonomic Nervous System
controls involuntary responses by influencing organs, glands and smooth muscle
prepares the body for stressful or energetic activity fight or flight, to Adrenergic Receptors to Alpha & Beta
dominates during times of rest and digestion, directs maintenance activities, to cholinergic receptors
What organs are regulated by the neurons from the automatic nervous system?
heart, digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tracts, arteries, salivary glands, and portions of the eye
What condition is the sympathetic nervous system activated and produces a set of?
conditions of stress, actions called fight or flight
What happens when the actions fight or flight are activated?
heart rate and blood pressure increase and more blood is shunted to skeletal muscles, the liver produces more glucose for energy, bronchi dilate to allow more air into the lungs, pupils dilate for better vision
What happens when the parasympathetic nervous system is activated?
activated under nonstressful situations and produces symptoms called the rest and digest response
What happens when the rest and digest response are activated?
digestive processes are promoted, heart and blood pressure decline, bronchi constrict
for information to be transmitted throughout the nervous system the neurons must?
communicate with each other and with muscles and glands
A large number of drugs affect autonomic function by altering?
neurotransmitter activity at the second synapse
Five ways by which drugs affect synaptic transmission?
Drugs affect synthesis of the neurotransmitter the the presynaptic nerve
prevent storage of the neurotransmitter in vesicles within the presynaptic nerve
prevent the normal destruction or reuptake of the neurotransmitter
bind to the receptor site on the postsynaptic target tissue
Drugs that cause the neurotransmitter to remain in the synapse for a longer time will stimulate?
Drugs that bind to postsynaptic receptors and stimulate target tissue will______autonomic function.
In the sympathetic nervous system what neurontransmitter is released at almost all postganglionic nerves?
have a slightly different chemical structure than the catecholamines, such as ephedrine, phenylephrine, and terbutaline
How do many drugs affect autonomic function?
by influencing the synthesis, storage, release, reuptake or destruction of NE (norepinephrine)
What receptors are important in the treatment of Parkinsons disease?
Dopaminergic receptors in the CNS
Dopamine receptors in the peripheral nervous system are located?
in the arterioles of the kidney and other viscera
Activation of nicotinic receptors causes?
tachycardia, hypertension and increased tone and motility in the digestive tract
only current therapeutic application of nicotinic receptors that produce relaxation during surgical procedures
Classifications of autonomic drugs
stimulation of sympathetic nervous system
inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system
stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system
Alpha 1 receptor therapeutic action
treatment of nasal congestion or hypotension; causes mydriasis during opthalmic examination
alpha 1 blocker-relaxes smooth muscle and dries nasal secretion
Alpha 2 receptor therapeutic action
treatment of hypertention through a centrally acting mechanism (Autonomic alpha 2 receptors are also located on presynaptic membranes of postganglionic neuorns and serve as autoreceptors for naturally occurring NE in the sympathetic nervous system. Activation of alpha 2 receptors reduces the relase of NE
alpha 2 agonists-Lowers blood pressure w/o affecting heart
inhibits release of norepinephrine
Beta 1 receptor therapeutic action
treatment of cardiac arrest, heart failure, and shock
Beta 1 blocker- decreases heart rate
activations increases heart rate & force of contraction, increases release of renin
Beta 2 receptor
treatment of asthma and premature labor contractions
Beta 2 agonists- lowers blood pressure w/o affecting heart (BETA BLOCKERS)
Following administration of an adrenergic (sympathomimetic drug, the nurse would assess for what side effects?
insomnia, nervousness, and hypertension
Therapeutic uses for anticholinergics include:
peptic ulcer disease, bradycardia, irritable bowel syndrome
Adrenergic-blocking (antagonis drugs include all of the following adverse reactions?
tachycardia, edema, heart failure
Elderly patient taking bethanechol (Urecholine) need to be assessed more frequently because of what side effect?
The patient takint tacrine (Cognex) should be obervant for waht side effects that may signal a possible overdose has occurred?
excessive seating, salivation, and drooling
The two primary divisions of the nervous system are the ____nervous system comprised of the brain and spinal cord and the ______nervous system, comprised of sensory and motor pathways.
The_____ nervous system provides involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
The sympathetic nervous system produces the _____ response; the parasympathetic nervous system produces symptoms called the ________ response.
fight or flight, rest and digest
Sympathetic nerves are often called ____ a term coming from the word adrenaline; parasympathetic nerves are called_____
Increased heart rate, bronchodilation, decreased motility in the GI tract, mydriasis and decreased secretion from glands are physiologic responses associated with inactivation of the _____nervous system or activation of the ______nervous system.
_____blockers, primarily used for hypertension, comprise the most commonly prescribed autonomic medications.
A class of drugs names after fight or flight response and primarily used for increasing the heart rate, dilating the bronchi and drying secretions resulting from colds is ______ drugs.
_____drugs names named after rest and digest response are commonly used to stimulate urinary or digestive tracts following general anesthesia.
anti-cholergnic, muscarinic acetycholine receptor antagonist, used for bradycardia, antrioventricular block, irritable bowel syndrome, anticholinesterase poisioning, antisecretory agent (surgery), peptic ulcers, treatment of ocular inflammation (relaxes iris and ciliary muscles)
vasoconstrictor, decongestant, adrenergic antagonist, causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle and vasoconstriction, stimulates sympathetic nervous system
Following administration of an adrenergic (sympathomimetic dru, the nurse would assess for which adverse drug effects?
Insomnia, nervousness and hypertension
Potential adverse reactions associated with the use of adrenergic antagonist are?
tachycardia, edema and heart failure
Elderly patients taking bethanecholo (Urecholoine) need to be assessed more frequently because of what side effect?
The patient taking tacrine (Cognex) should be observant for which of the following adverse effects that may signal a possible overdose has occured.
excessive sweating, salivation, and drooling