an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo
the rise of new york city
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
eli whitney,s invention
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
abstaining from excess
a tuition free school in the United States supported by taxes and controlled by a school board
seneca falls conference
the first major meeting to discuss equal rights for women in the US, wrote Declaration of Sentiments-drafted after the Declaration of Independence, laid out womens' demands. Reactions: some women felt empowered, others were very critical
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.
william lioyd garrison
Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
john c. calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
mexican american war
after Mexican refusal to sell California-New Mexico region, Polk sent troops and it ended w/ Treat of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
kansas nebraska act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
dred scott case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
john brown's raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
robert e lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
william t. sherman
general whose march to sea caused destruction to the south
iAmerican statesman, an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863)
a battle of the American Civil War (1863)
battle for atlanta
Union forces defeated Confederate forces in the city of Atlanta
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
any region lying in or toward the north
any region lying in or toward the south
lincoln's reconstruction plan
1. amnesty to all but few southerners who took oath of loyalty 2. 10% percent of state voters (1860 elect.) taken oath could organize state gov. 3. members of conf. gov officers of army, former federal judges, members of congress could not receive amnesty
johnson's reconstruction plan
It called for special state conventions which were required to repeal the decreres of seccesion, and ratify the slave freeing 13th amendment
Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
1866, 6 Confed soldiers formed it and pretended to be ghosts of Confed soldiers whose goal was to get revenge against the "enemies" of the South.
impeachment of andrew johnson
Johnson was impeached for the charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors on February 24, 1868 of which one of the articles of impeachment was violating the Tenure of Office Act. He had removed Edwin M. Stanton, the Secretary of War, from office and replaced him with Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
american federation of labor
a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
United States writer whose novels argued for social reform (1878-1968)
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
a crowbar fitted with a claw for pulling nails
plessy vs ferguson
a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
the act of removing an official by petition
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
chinese exclusion act of 1882
United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
spanish american war
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Germany loses war to: United States, England, France. Treaty of Versailles forced germany to pay, reperations 33 billion to its enemies and to give up land. Result: Germany are angry and humiliated.
unrestricted submarine warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
wilson's 14 points
January 8,1918. Was a set of idealistic goals for peace. 1. no more secret treaties 2. freedom of the seas was to be maintained 3. a removal of economic barriers among nations4. reduction of arms 5, adjustment of cononial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers 6. "self determination" or independence for oppressed minority groups who would choose their govt 7. a legue of nations, an international organization that would keep the peace and sttle world disputes
league of nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
compromise of 1877
This settled the election of 1876, troops were removed from Louisiana and South Carolina and concessions for building a southern transcontinental railroad made