Characterization is the emotional, spiritual, and physical traits that create a memorable character in fiction. The development of those traits is how the author takes you there. A good writer develops those traits slowly and specifically. A well developed character is not created in one sentimental page or paragraph but throughout the story. A well developed character is not all good or all bad but human with human struggles, triumphs and failures.
Supernatural events, gloomy and haunted settings. A style of fiction first popularized in the 18th century.
Compare and Contrast
One of the most important things a writer can do is compare and contrast two or three elements within literature. Usually it occurs between two characters but it can also be between settings, societies, social mores etc.