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Hypovolemic Shock

The liver and spleen add to the blood volume by disgorging stored red blood cells and plasma

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Compensates for hypovolemic shock by stimulating aldosterone release, which retains sodium and hence water to increase the blood volume

Oliguria

Any shock can cause (blank) by decreasing the perfusion to kidneys. Associated with prerenal failure

Septic shock

Shock following infection

Cardiogenic shock

Shock characterized by pump failure, follows a myocardial infection

Anaphylactic shock

Shock characterized by allergic response; more severe than other forms because of its sudden, rapid systemic vasodilation. Follows widespread hypersensitivity reaction

Vasogenic shock

Overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system or understimulation of sympathetic nervous system

Neurogenic shock

Follows parasympathetic stimulation

Hypovolemic shock

Shock that follows burns

Multi-organ dysfunction or MODS

Impaired perfusion is the primary mechanism that causes organ injury; a spiral that occurs following uncontrolled shock

First-degree

Only outer layer of skin in burned, but not all the way through. Skin is red, with swelling, and pain is sometimes present

Second-degree

Superficial; first layer of skin has been burned through and the second layer of skin (dermis) is also burned. Blisters developed and skin takes on intensely reddened, splotchy appearance

Third-degree

Involves all layers of the skin and cause permanent tissue damage. Areas may be charred black or appear dry and and white.

Third-degree

Difficulty inhaling and exhaling, CO poisoning, or other toxic effects may occur if smoke inhalation accompanies burns

Scald burns

Caused by hot grease or boiling water

Contact burns

Cigarette burns or curling irons

Flame burns

Involves flammable liquids such as gasoline

Electrical burns

Direct contact with high and/or low voltage currents

Chemical burns

Corrosive agent- think acid

Heat stroke

Most life threatening injury (hypothermic injury)

Heat cramps

Painful muscle spasms which usually affect arms, legs, or stomach. Sweating depletes body's salt and moisture

Heat exhaustion

Still sweats, but experiences extreme weekness or fatigue, nausea, or headache

Heat rash

Prickly heat

Hyperplasia

Extra cells, increased number

Hypertrophy

Increased size

Dysplasia

Abnormality in development

Metaplasia

Reversible placement of one mature cell type with another cell type

Pathologic atrophy

Is commonly caused by disease- cellular change

Malignant cells

Have a high mitotic index

Kussmaul respirations

Deep, rapid respirations. Occurs in metabolic acidosis to decrease CO2 and thereby reduce carbonic acid

Autosomal dominant transmission

Males equal to females, no skipped generations, and transmitted to half of offspring

Carcinoma in situ

Preinvasive epithelial malignant tumors (e.g. cervical

Stage 1

Cancer has formed

Stage 2

In lymph nodes

Stage 3

Spread to regional structures

Stage 4

Distant metastasis

T-cell development

Thymus is central lymphoid organ

Prevalence rate

Disease is proportion of the population affected by a disease at a specific point in time

Incidence

Number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific period (typically 1 year)

Serous

Clear, water fluids- exudates

Seroanguinous

Clear, watery fluids mixed with blood

Hemorrhagic

Blood (exudate)

Suppurative

Exudate; present during bacterial infections (pus)

Nocieceptive pain

Impulses arises from skin, muscle, joints, arteries, and viscera in response to chemical, mechanical, thermal stimuli

Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE)

Autoimmune disease

Conductive hearing loss

Occurs when a change in outer ear or middle ear impairs sound from being conducted from outer to inner ear

Hyponatremia

Confusion, irritability, depression, headache, seizures

Hypernatremia

Hypotension, fever, tachycardia

Hypokalemia

Absent bowel sounds, skeletal muscle weakness, bradycardia

Hypomagnesemia

Depression, confusion, irritability, increased reflexes, tetany

Hypercalcemia

Fatigue, weakness, kidney stones, varying degrees of heart block

Brain Abcess

Complication of mastoiditis

Crypto neoformans

Opportunistic infection

Meningitis

CNS manifestation of tuberculosis

Encephalitis

Mosquito- borne viral infection

Lyme disease

Tick-borne bacterial infection

Schizophrenia

Involves psychotic episodes

Mania

Characterized by elevated levels of euphoria

Depression

Unremitting feeling of sadness and despair

Panic disorder

Intensive autonomic arousal including lightheadedness, dyspnea, generalized sweating, racing heart

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Repetitive, intrusive thoughts

Acromegaly

Excessive growth hormone caused by pituitary tumor

Cushing disease

Hypersecretion of ACTH

Addison disease

Adrenal insufficiency

Graves disease

Autoimmune hyperthyroiditis

Myxedema

Cutaneous edema often associated with thyroid disease

Pheochromocytoma

Tumor of adrenal medulla

Chronic osteomyelitis

Distinguishing characteristic of inflammatory exudates

Klinefelter syndrome

Chromosomal disorder caused by nondisjunction of X chromosome in mother

Consanguinity

Mating of persons having common family relations- incest

Asthma CMs

Inspiratory and expiratory wheezing, dyspnea, nonproductive cough, tachpnea

Aspiration

Passage fluid and solid particles into lung

Bronchiolitis

Inflammatory obstruction of small airways

Pulmonary fibrosis

Excessive amount of connective tissue in lung

Bronchiectasis

Abnormal dilation of bronchi

Pulmonary embolus

Often caused by venous stasis and hypercoagulability

Pernicious anemia

Anemia; lack of intrinsic factor

Mononucleosis

Caused by epstein bar virus

Sympathetic nervous system

Increased cardiac contractility, increased rate

Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale

Jugular vein distention, hepatosplenomegaly or ascites, edema, pulmonary hypertension. Involves parasympathetic nervous system

Hypertension

Long standing evidence of BP >140/90

Cardiac output

Amount of blood is pumped out left ventricle to aorta

Asthma

Main CM is bronchoconstriction, allergies frequently involved, with elevated IgE

Cyanosis

Decreased arterial oxygenation with 5 gms of unoxygenated hemoglobin

Urinary tract infection

CMs burning on urgency. In elderly may include confusion and poorly localized abdominal discomfort

Prerenal failure

Renal hypoperfusion

Intrarenal failure

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

Postrenal failure

Prostatic hypertrophy

Hyperkalemia

Glucose and insulin used to treat because insulin transports glucose into the cell, it also carries potassium with it. 3.5-5.0 MEq

Tinea corporis

Caused ringworm- fungal infection of skin

Wart

Verruca or lichen planus; elevated, firm circumscribed area less than 1 cm in diameter

Psoriasis

Seborrheic and actinic planus; elevated, firm, rough lesion with flat top surface greater then 1 cm in diameter

Nevus

Flat mole; circumscribed area that is less than 1 cm in diameter

Urticaria

Allergic reaction; elevated irregular-shaped area of cutaneous edema; solid, transient, with variable diameter; hives

Varicella or herpes zoster

Elevated circumscribed, superficial lesion filled with serous fluid, less then 1 cm in diameter

Osmotic diarrhea

Result of unhyrolized lactose- lactase deficiency

Reflux esophagitis

Inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux

Ulcerative colitis

Inflammation developed in crypts of Lieberkuhn in large intestine

Crohns disease

Alteration of IgG production have been found in individuals with this disorder

Rheumatoid Arthritis

CMs are Systemic, fatigue, fever, weakness

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Synovitis and bone marrow inflammation; FUSION of spine and Los if lumbar curve

Gout

High uric acid, At high risk for renal calculi

Antibodies

Produced in plasma cells

Segmental inhibition

E. G. Hitting one's thumb with a hammer and holding it or putting it in mouth

Extradural hematoma

Usually from arterial bleed

Cerebral hemorrhage

Usually caused by hypertension

Acute Rheumatic Fever

Sequel to strep throat

Aortic semilunar valve

Failure to close completely causes ejected blood flow back into left ventricle during diastole

Parathyroid gland

Regulates calcium

REM sleep

Desynchronized, low voltage, fast activity that occurs about every 90 minutes

Active acquired

Type of immunity that is produced by an individual after either natural exposure to antigen or after immunization against antigen

6 days

Time period before antibody can detected in circulation after exposure to antigen

Pathologic

Fracture at site if a preexisting bone abnormality, usually by a force that would normally not cause a fracture

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Lack of insulin, often due to autoimmune destruction of islets of langerhorn;

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Insulin resistance

Diabetes mellitus

Leads to hyperglycemia and as glucose spills into urine, polyuria

Diabetes insipidus

Lack of ADH, polyuria, hypernatremia

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Chronic autoimmune disease

Tuberculosis

Bacterial infection; spread by air droplet from person to person

Spinal cord injury

Level or injury indicates CMs; older adults more at risk from Minor trauma

Night terrors

Sudden apparent arousal in which child expresses intense fear or another strong enothion while in sleep state

Passive innate immunity

Passed mother to fetus and continues to provide immunity during first months of life

Dehydration CMs

Dry mucous membranes, poor skin turgor, pulse is weak, tachycardia

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