Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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True

Both cerebrum and cerebellum have gray matter in their surface cortex and deeper nuclei, and white matter deep to the cortex.

True

The cerebellum exhibits folds called gyri separated by grooves called sulci

False

Epidural space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

False

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) helps preventing hemorrhages in the nervous tissue of the brain.

False

The blood-CFS barrier is composed of dense regular connective tissue lining the

True

Purkinje cells are unusually large neurons found in the cerebellum.

False

The cerebellum is the largest part of the brain.

False

The medulla oblongata is the most rostral part of the brain.

True

The forebrain consists of the cerebrum and the diencephalon.

False

Structures in the midbrain control homeostasis and relay sensory signals to specific regions of the cerebral cortex.

True

The amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus are involved in such feelings as love, anger, fear, pleasure and pain.

True

The Wernicke area recognizes spoken and written language.

False

The vision association area resides primary in the temporal lobe

False

All cranial nerves lead to structures in the head and neck.

False

There are three cranial nerves involved in eye movement and two in the sense of taste

the cerebellum

The following are all major components of the brainstem except

the longitudinal fissure.

The right and left cerebral hemispheres are separated from each other by

caudal

The cerebellum is __ to the cerebrum.

cortex; nuclei

The gray matter of the brain forms a surface layer called ___ and deeper masses called ___ surrounded by white matter.

metencephalon

The pons and cerebellum relate with this secondary embryonic vesicle.

Pons

This figure shows the major anatomical landmarks of the medial surface of the brain. What does "7" represent?

hypothalamus

This figure shows the major anatomical landmarks of the medial surface of the brain. What does "3" represent?

dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater.

From superficial to deep, the meninges occur in this order:

to provide oxygen and nutrients to the nervous tissue.

Cerebrospinal fluid serves these purposes except

lateral, third and fourth; superior sagittal sinus

Cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by choroid plexuses in the ____ ventricles and reabsorbed by arachnoid villi in the ___.

glucose and oxygen.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is most permeable to

tight junctions between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls.

The blood brain barrier (BBB) consists of

meningitis

A patient is experiencing a high fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, and intense headaches. A spinal tap showed bacteria and white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This individual most likely has

the myelencephalon.

The medulla oblongata originates from

the medulla oblongata.

The cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers are found in

superior colliculi

The ___ function(s) in visual attention, such as to look and follow the flight of a butterfly

substantia nigra

Degeneration of neurons in this structure, which inhibits unwanted body movements, leads to the muscle tremors of Parkinson disease.

gray matter; brainstem

The reticular formation is a web of ___ scattered throughout the ____.

cerebellum

The ___ is the largest part of the hindbrain.

cerebellum

Loss of equilibrium and motor coordination would most likely be related with a lesion in the

the cerebellum

The arbor vitae is a structure found in

the cerebellum.

There are no cranial nerves associated with

neck movements

The pons is not associated with

diencephalon

The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus are derivatives of the embryonic

the thalamus.

Nearly all the somatosensory input to the cerebrum passes by way of synapses in

the hypothalamus

Sex drive, body temperature, and food and water intake are regulated by

suprachiasmatic nucleus

A lesion of the ___ would probably cause a person to sleep for random lengths of time during a 24-hour period.

the epithalamus.

Pineal gland belongs to

the frontal lobe

Planning, motivation, and social judgment are function of the brain associated with

the principal visual center of the brain.

The occipital lobe is

the insula

This figure shows the lobes of the cerebrum, and some anatomical landmarks. What does "4" represent?

commissural

The great majority of ____ tracts pass through the corpus callosum.

the neocortex.

Most gray matter of the cerebrum is located in

the limbic system.

Hippocampus and amygdala are structures found in

theta

A predominance of ___ waves in an electroencephalogram (EEG) might indicate that a person is physically and mentally relaxed.

the muscles are paralyzed, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates increase.

During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

parietal; temporal

The ___ association area is responsible for perceiving and attending to stimuli, and the ___ association area is responsible for identifying them.

hippocampus; cerebral cortex

Short-term memory is associated with the ____, whereas long-term memory is associated with the ___.

expression of emotional feelings

Ablation (destruction) of the amygdala would mostly affect

postcentral gyrus

Touch is first processed in the _____ in the ____.

the fingers

Which body region is controlled by the largest area of the motor cortex?

upper motor

The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus are called ___ neurons.

Broca area

Nonfluent aphasia, due to a lesion in the ___, results in slow speech, difficulty in choosing words, or use of words that only approximate the correct word.

Adult males; adult females

___ show more lateralization than ___.

painting a picture

Which of the following functions would most likely be controlled by the representational hemisphere of the cerebrum?

precentral gyrus in the left frontal lobe

After a stoke a patient complains about lack of sensitivity in her right hand. The stroke most likely affected the

vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

The ___ is not a motor cranial nerve.

the trigeminal nerve (V)

This is the largest of the cranial nerves and the most important sensory nerve of the face.

the vagus nerve (X)

This nerve innervates most of the viscera in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

the trochlear nerve (IV)

This figure shows the base of the brain. What does "8" represent?

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