Secretions that affect only nearby cells are termed?
Paracrine (local) hormones
Hormones function to?
Chemical messengers that travel in bloodstream to other tissues and organs
Hormones that the posterior pituitary secretes are synthesized in the?
Hypothalamus - the posterior love produces no hormones of its own but, stores and release OT (oxytocin) and ADH
Aldosterone promotes the homeostasis of ions by causing the kidneys to?
Conserve sodium and excrete potassium ions, promoting water
Conservation and excretion of wastes through urine
Secretion of insulin causes?
Cells in the liver muscle and fat to take up glucose from circulating
Blood and storing it as glycogen
the packed cell volume, represents the percentage of Total blood volume comprised of red blood cells.
The biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they are mature are the?
Erythrocyte or red blood cell
Platelets are best described as?
Not true cells; they are small, regularly-shaped clear cell fragments
Without a nucleus, derived from fragmentation of precursor megakaryocytes
A primary function of lymphocytes is to?
Destroy foreign cells, cancer cells, cells infected by viruses.
Comprised of NK cells, T cells, and B cells.
Athletes abuse erythropoietin (EPO) because it?
Stimulates erythropoietin and a higher packed cell volume increases delivery of oxygen to tissue in turn enhancing performance
Nonprotein nitrogenous substances include?
Free amino acids from dietary protein or tissue breakdown - Urea amino acids metabolism - toxic end product of catabolism - normally removed from blood by kidneys - creatinine
The final step in the formation of a blood clot is?
The red blood cells of type AB blood have on their surfaces?
Has both A & B antigens
The pulmonary circuit of the heart?
Carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to body right side of the heart and has deoxygenated blood
Describe the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves from the vena cava to the lungs?
Superior/Inferior vena cava into right atrium - right AV valve opens into pulmonary trunk right and left pulmonary arteries to lungs (carbon dioxide for O2) - Pulmonary veins to left atrium - left AV valve (bicuspid) to left ventricle - aortic valve opens - aorta - body cells to exchange superior/inferior vena cava
Which of the following waves of an ECG pattern is/are correctly described?
P-wave -- SA node fires, atria depolarize and contract, atrial systole begins.
QRS -- AV node fires, ventricular depolarization, atrial repolarization and diastole
ST wave -- Ventricular systole
T-wave -- Ventricular repolarization
The correct sequence of parts that carry cardiac impulses is?
1. SA node
2. AV node
3. AV bundle
4. Purkinji fibers
The normal pacemaker of the heart is the?
In an ECG pattern, the T wave is caused by?
Ventricular repolarization and relaxation.
Water and dissolved substances leave the arteriole end of a capillary due to ____, and enter the venule end of a capillary due to ______.
When a person's pulse is taken by palpation near the thumb on the wrist, which artery is felt?
Fluid is kept from accumulating in tissue spaces by?
The lymphatic system
Cells in a lymph node that engulf and destroy damaged cells, foreign substances, and cellular debris are?
Inflammation is a response to?
Tissue injury of any kind - including trauma and infection
A transplant recipient's body rejects a transplanted organ because her ______ does not match that of the donor
Antigens, MHC are the primary responsibility here in organ transport
T lymphocytes are responsible for _________ immunity.
Specific / cellular
The type of resistance that is acquired as a result of developing a disease is?
Natural active immunity production of one's own antibodies or T cells as a result of infection or natural exposure to antigens - also produces "memory cells" to guard against future infection
Cytotoxic T cells destroy?
Bacteria, cells of transplanted organs, cells infected with viruses and cancer cells
B cells divide and differentiate into _________ which produce and secrete antibodies.
B cells into plasma cells -antigen
The ultimate function of breathing is to?
Intake O2 into the body and release carbon dioxide
Which of the following is not a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages?
Functions of the mucus covered nasal passages include moistening and warming inhaled air - filtering the incoming air to remove pathogens and to detect odors
The force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the?
Force that moved air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the diaphragm
The volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the?
The volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the tidal volume
The respiratory areas are in the ____________ of the brain?
Medulla oblongata and pons of the brain
Which of the following is important in maintaining the pH of blood?
The chloride shift?
CO2 diffuses into the blood carbonic anhydrase in RBC catalyzes keeps reaction proceeding exchanges HCO3 for CI -H+ binds to hemoglobin to maintain pH in the blood.
What are functions of the kidneys?
1-Filters blood plasma, separates waste from useful chemicals, returns useful substances to blood, eliminates wastes
2-Regulate blood volume and pressure by eliminating or conserving H2O
3-Regulate the osmolarity of the body fluids by controlling the relative amounts of water and solutes eliminated
4-secretes enzyme, rennin, which activates hormonal mechanisms that control blood pressure and electrolyte balance
5-secretes the hormone, erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells
6-Collaborate with the lungs to regulate the PCO2 and acid-base balance of body fluids - pH
7-final step in synthesizing hormone, calcitriol, which contributes to calcium homeostasis
8-gluconeogenesis (generates glucose) from amino acids in extreme starvation
Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?
Proximal convoluted tubules, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
A renal corpuscle is a _____, whereas a renal tubule is a _____.
Capsule (filter) / Duct
The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the?
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
What would increase the rate of glomerular filtration?
An increase in blood pressure would cause the afferent arterioles to constrict which would allow more of the glomerular fluid to be filtered
What is normally a constituent of urine?
95% H2O - 5% solutes (urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid, phosphates, and sulfates)
What describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop?
In the descending limb, H2O passes into the ECF from the tubules and leaves salt behind. In the ascending limb, H2O is reabsorbed and Na+, K+, and Cl- are pumped back into the ECF to maintain osmolarity of the renal medulla
A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of a glomerular capsule will _____ the rate of glomerular filtration.
It will decrease because of the arterioles will dilate which slows down the movement of glomerular fluid.
The digestive system functions in?
1. ingestion - selective intake of food
2. digestion - mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into a form usable by the body
3. absorption - uptake of nutrient molecules into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood and lymph
4. compaction - absorbing water and consolidating the indigestible residue into feces
5. defecation - elimination of undigested material (feces)
Salivary amylase digests?
Begins starch digestion in the mouth
The parietal cells of gastric glands secrete?
Hydrochloric acid (HCL), intrinsic factor and a hunger hormone called ghrelin
The major mixing movement in the small intestine is accomplished by?
________ pick up cholesterol from the peripheral tissues and return it to the liver.
Which of the following is a function of the large intestine?
Absorbs H2O and electrolytes - Absorption and motility defecation
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are _______ nutrients.
Which of the following is not a monosaccharide?
The monomers of more complex carbohydrates
Vanessa takes many vitamin supplements, claiming that they give her energy. She is mistaken, because cells preferentially use _______ for energy.
Glucose is the fuel of choice for cellular respiration and other carbohydrates re the preference
Cells of the ______ system in the body most require continuous glucose.
________ provides short-term energy after cellular glucose supplies are depleted.
Sugars that are part of RNA and DNA are?
Ribose and Deoxyribose
Oils, fats, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids (including cholesterol)
A triglyceride consists of?
3 fatty acids covalently bonded to the 3 carbon alcohol glycerol
The fat-soluble vitamins include?
A, D, E, and K absorbed with other lipids
Intrinsic factor regulates the absorption of?
Transcellular fluid includes the water and electrolytes in the?
Extracellular fluids have relatively ________ electrolyte concentrations.
The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily by?
Which is the largest compartment of extracellular water in the body?
Tissue (Interstitial fluid)
The thirst center is located in the ______ of the brain.
ADH level in nephrons regulates water output by causing the _____.
The CD and DCT to regulate H2O
A person in a moderate environment would lose the greatest volume of water in ____.
When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone, potassium ions are?
Which of the following metabolic processes releases hydrogen ions to body fluids?
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration breakdown fatty acids and amino acids
Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes by?
Converting strong acid or base to a weak one
Acid-base buffers are the first line of defense against shifts in pH because?
They raise or lower the level of the pH quickly
Acidosis is a pH of arterial blood ____.
Alkalosis is a pH of arterial blood _____.
Edema is defined as?
Abnormal accumulation of tissue fluid resulting in swelling of the tissue