Chapter 14 Study Guide Biotechnology and Genomics

42 terms by SweetDee

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

This study guide is based off of Biology by Sylvia Mader 10th edition. The chapter is number 14 titled Biotechnology and Genomics. In the learn based tool, prompt with term and copy the "whole" answer and paste it into the answer box.

What is the function of naturally occurring restriction enzymes in bacterial cells?
A. They are used during DNA replication in the bacterial cell.
B. They are used to degrade the bacterial cell's DNA.
C. Restriction enzymes recognize and cleave DNA molecules that are foreign to the bacterial cell.
D. These enzymes are used to attach pieces of DNA into an opening created by ligase enzymes.

C. Restriction enzymes recognize and cleave DNA molecules that are foreign to the bacterial cell.

Which of the following is mismatched?
A. bioinformatics - the study of a genomic and proteomic information using computer analysis
B. polymerase chain reaction - process that separates DNA fragments according to size
C. genomics - the study of the genomes of humans and other organisms
D. proteomics - the study of species' proteins

B. polymerase chain reaction - process that separates DNA fragments according to size

Place the following steps in cloning DNA in the correct order
1 - use vector to deliver new rDNA to bacterial or other cells
2 - use restriction enzymes to cut a plasmid and add the desired gene
3 - isolate and cut out a desired gene using restriction enzymes
4 - use DNA ligase to seal the new gene
A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
B. 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
C. 2, 5, 3, 1, 4
D. 3, 2, 4, 1, 5

D. 3, 2, 4, 1, 5

The function of a vector in genetic engineering is to
A. cut DNA into many fragments.
B. introduce rDNA into a host cell.
C. link together newly joined fragments of DNA.
D. make millions of copies of a specific segment of DNA.
E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges.

B. introduce rDNA into a host cell.

The term "ligase" adds the suffix "-ase" to the Latin root word for
A. gene.
B. work.
C. cut.
D. bind.
E. copy-producing.

D. bind.

Which of the following molecules forms lengths of DNA with "sticky ends"?
A. DNA ligase
B. DNA polymerase
C. RNA polymerase
D. reverse transcriptase
E. restriction enzyme

E. restriction enzyme

The function of DNA ligase in recombinant technology is to
A. cut DNA into many fragments.
B. carry DNA into a new cell.
C. seal DNA into an opening created by restriction enzymes.
D. make millions of copies of a specific segment of DNA.
E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges.

C. seal DNA into an opening created by restriction enzymes.

What is complementary DNA (cDNA)?
A. cDNA is the strand of DNA opposite the strand used to make mRNA.
B. cDNA is a sequence of DNA as it is found in the genome.
C. cDNA is any sequence of cloned DNA.
D. cDNA is DNA made from a mature mRNA template.
E. cDNA is DNA made through the polymerase chain reaction

D. cDNA is DNA made from a mature mRNA template.

What enzyme is used to make cDNA from mRNA?
A. DNA ligase
B. helicase
C. reverse transcriptase
D. RNA polymerase
E. restriction enzyme

C. reverse transcriptase

The function of the polymerase chain reaction in genetic engineering is to
A. cut DNA into many fragments.
B. carry DNA into a new cell.
C. link together newly joined fragments of DNA.
D. make multiple copies of a specific segment of DNA.
E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges.

D. make multiple copies of a specific segment of DNA.

All of the following statements are true about restriction enzymes EXCEPT
A. they are made by bacteria and viruses.
B. hundreds of different ones have been isolated and purified.
C. they produce single-stranded complementary ends that can join to two different DNA strands by
complementary base pairing.
D. each enzyme cuts DNA at a different specific base sequence.

A. they are made by bacteria and viruses.

What was the minimal requirement for "classic DNA fingerprinting" to associate a blood sample with the
criminal, or to estimate the evolutionary similarity of an extinct quagga as closer to a zebra than a horse?
A. one sample of DNA, PCR amplification, restriction enzymes, and gel electrophoresis
B. one sample of DNA, restriction enzymes, a DNA synthesizer, and gel electrophoresis
C. two samples of DNA, PCR amplification, restriction enzymes, and gel electrophoresis
D. two samples of DNA, PCR amplification, a DNA synthesizer, and gel electrophoresis
E. two samples of DNA, PCR amplification, restriction enzymes, and a DNA synthesizer

C. two samples of DNA, PCR amplification, restriction enzymes, and gel electrophoresis

To carry out a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), you must have DNA polymerase and
A. a blueprint or gene map of the sequence you wish to copy.
B. the nucleotides to synthesize new DNA strands.
C. a DNA synthesizer machine.
D. a DNA probe.

B. the nucleotides to synthesize new DNA strands.

A transgenic organism is
A. one that contains a gene from another organism of the same or different species.
B. one produced by cloning a mutant cell.
C. one that acts as the donor for DNA to be moved into another organism.
D. one produced by the polymerase chain reaction.
E. any genetically modified organism resulting from laboratory research.

A. one that contains a gene from another organism of the same or different species.

Plants are being genetically engineered to have
A. a requirement for more fertilizer.
B. an increased water requirement.
C. the ability to produce human proteins.
D. increased susceptibility to herbicides.
E. All of the choices are correct.

C. the ability to produce human proteins.

A common method used to introduce rDNA into bacterial host cells is
A. viral infection.
B. bacteriophage infection.
C. plasmid transfer.
D. microinjection of DNA.
E. laser irradiation of cells in a fluid containing DNA.

C. plasmid transfer.

Transgenic _______ have been given suicide genes that cause them to self-destruct when the job for which
they are engineered has been accomplished.
A. animals
B. bacteria
C. plants
D. fungi
E. All of the choices are correct.

B. bacteria

What is the function of gel electrophoresis in genetic engineering?
A. cut DNA into many fragments
B. carry DNA into a new cell
C. link together newly joined fragments of DNA
D. make millions of copies of a specific segment of DNA
E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges

E. separate fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges

DNA fingerprinting may be used to establish paternity. Analyze the banding pattern pictured at right to
determine the father of the child.
A. Male 1
B. Male 2

A. Male 1

With both bacterial and eukaryotic cells constantly dying and breaking down around us, and with a
tremendous load of fragmentary DNA washing around in the fluid world, why aren't genes being transferred
among various living organisms at a massive scale daily?
A. DNA that is not protected inside a protein coat or membrane is very vulnerable.
B. Living cells maintain a very effective barrier to the introduction of large molecules.
C. Since a vector appears necessary to snatch up DNA from one protected source and inject it into a cell,
"naked" DNA is apparently vulnerable and unable to cross membranes easily.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. None of the choices are correct, since DNA is readily exchanged among all organisms in nature.

D. All of the choices are correct.

When bone marrow stem cells are removed from the patient, infected with a virus that carries a normal
gene, and returned to the patient, this is an example of
A. PCR.
B. chemotherapy.
C. viral disinfection.
D. in vivo gene therapy.
E. ex vivo gene therapy.

E. ex vivo gene therapy.

Transgenic plant products include all of the following EXCEPT
A. soybeans that are resistant to a common herbicide.
B. an antibody produced by soybeans to treat genital herpes.
C. suicide genes that cause the plants to self destruct after their product has been produced.
D. antibodies produced by corn plants that deliver radioisotopes to tumor cells.

C. suicide genes that cause the plants to self destruct after their product has been produced.

All of the following are true regarding transgenic animals EXCEPT
A. foreign genes are micro-injected into eggs, fertilized in vitro, and the zygotes are placed in host females to
develop.
B. the process has inserted bovine growth hormone into fish, cows, and other animals.
C. the process has been used to develop organisms that are partially animals and partially plant.
D. the product desired by the transgenic procedure may be secreted in the milk of female offspring.

C. the process has been used to develop organisms that are partially animals and partially plant.

Gene pharming is the use of
A. transgenic plants to produce larger vegetables and sweeter fruits.
B. bacteria to produce organic compounds like aspartame and phenylalanine.
C. STR profiling to determine evolutionary relationships among organisms.
D. transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals.

D. transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals.

It is estimated that humans have approximately ______ bases in our genome.
A. 3 billion
B. 2.5 million
C. 180 million
D. 12 trillion

A. 3 billion

Human gene therapy
A. includes the insertion of genetic material into human cells for the treatment of a genetic disease.
B. has been used for treatment of children who have severe combined immunodeficiency.
C. has been used in a trial to treat familial hypercholesterolemia.
D. All of the choices are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

Gene therapy in humans has been used to treat
A. cystic fibrosis.
B. cancer.
C. inborn errors of metabolism.
D. All of the above.
E. A and C only.

D. All of the above.

The introduction of normal genes into an afflicted individual for therapeutic use is called
A. human cloning.
B. proteonomics.
C. gene therapy.
D. genetic profiling.

C. gene therapy.

Xenotransplantation is the
A. use of transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals.
B. use of animal organs instead of human organs in transplant patients.
C. introduction of normal genes into an afflicted individual for therapeutic use.
D. separation of fragments of DNA by their length and electrical charges.

B. use of animal organs instead of human organs in transplant patients.

Animal cloning is a difficult process with a low success rate.
True False

True

All of the following statements about CNVs are true EXCEPT
A. CNVs occur when genes have changed their number.
B. the changes may result from fork stalling and template switching.
C. CNVs have known links to disease.
D. All of the above are true.

D. All of the above are true.

Transgenic plants must be approved by the Food and Drug Administration before they are considered safe
for human consumption.
True False

True

The polymerase chain reaction uses RNA polymerase.
True False

False

Biotechnology products produced by bacteria include all of the following EXCEPT
A. an antibody to deliver radioisotopes to tumor cells.
B. clotting factor VIII.
C. human growth hormone.
D. insulin.

A. an antibody to deliver radioisotopes to tumor cells.

Familial hypercholesterolemia
A. is characterized by high blood levels of cholesterol.
B. is a condition that develops when liver cells lack a receptor protein for removing cholesterol from the blood.
C. may be treated by ex vivo gene therapy.
D. All of the above are true.
E. A and B only are true.

D. All of the above are true.

Research has shown that people with fewer copies of the CCL3L1 gene are less susceptible to HIV than
those with more copies of the gene.
True False

False

In what field of study would scientists predict a protein's three-dimensional shape and how DNA mutations
would affect protein function.
A. Bioinformatics
B. Proteomics
C. Genomics
D. All of the above.

D. All of the above.

Proteomics is the study of the exact role of the genome in cells or organisms.
True False

False

Gene therapy is being used in cancer patients to make healthy cells more tolerant of chemotherapy and to
make tumors more vulnerable to chemotherapy.
True False

True

Small, variable regions of DNA that may change an individual's susceptibility to disease are called
proteomes.
True False

False

Gene cloning can be accomplished by recombinant DNA technology and polymerase chain reactions.
True False

True

Automated polymerase chain reactions were made possible when the temperature insensitive DNA
polymerase was isolated from the thermophile Thermus aquaticus.
True False

True

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set