Chapter 3-5 Terms

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"Olive Branch Petition"

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

Common Sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Loyalists/Tories

Loyalists, otherwise known as Tories, were those living in the U.S. who were still loyal or in favor of Great Britain, and who supported the king. NY, NJ, GA; later went to Canada, were wealthy and conservative (governmentt officials or Anglican clergymen); Native Americans

Articles of Confederation

This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.

Bunker Hill

A battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. Yet, it ended up giving America confidence and it pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.

Benedict Arnold

He was a successful general in the Continental Army who won key victories for the colonies. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

Hessians

German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

Valley Forge

Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops

The Iroquois Confederacy

A powerful alliance of Indian tribes that was the only one to remain neutral during the French and Indian War (Seven years' war). The tribe had previously been subject of a peace treaty with the British and were noted as one of three powers of North America. After the Seven Years' War the alliance with the Iroquois and the British diminished and they began contesting each other for power over the Ohio Valey.

Yorktown

The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!

Mary Wollstonecraft

English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women

Abigail Adams

Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.

Republicanism

A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.

Idea of Convention

The idea of coming together as colonies to make decisions as a whole, instead of all self governing

Land Ordinance of 1784

Purpose was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original colonies acquired from Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery

Battle of Fallen Timbers

The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River

Treaty of Greenville

This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.

Shay's Rebellion

A rebellion by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays, against Boston creditors. it began in 1786 and lasted half a year, threatening the economic interests of the business elite and contributing to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.

salutary neglect

was an English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for the colonies' continued economic loyalty.

Franklin's Albany Plan

a plan by which Parliament would set up in America "one general government" for all the colonies. Each colony would retain its present constitution but would grant the new general gov such powers as the authority to govern all relations w/ Indians. The central gov would have a president general and a legislature.

French and Indian War

it was a war fought by the French and the English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley. The English defeated the French in1763 and established England as the number one world power. It began to gradually change the attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Iroquois Confederacy

the 5 Indian Nations who tried to maintain the uneasy balance of power in the great lakes region.

Ohio Valley

was a region that was disputed by British, French and Indians. Indian tribes lived in the valley while France claimed it as territory and English settlement was expanding into it; tension eventually caused war to begin.

Fort Duquesne

a French fort that was site of the first major battle of the French and Indian war. General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.

Paxton Boys

a band of people from western PA who descended on Philadelphia with demands for relief from colonial taxes and for money to help them defend themselves against Indians.

Stamp Act Crisis

1765, was a tax on stamps and printed materials in colonies to pay for keeping troops there and paying off war debts. It angered many colonists because of taxation without representation and led to protesting and violence; often by the sons of liberty.

Patrick Henry; the "Virginia Resolves"

a set of resolutions declaring that Americans possessed the same rights as the English, especially the right to be taxed only by their own representatives

The Stamp Act Congress

they were a group of colonists who protested the stamp act. They said the Parliament couldn't raise taxes w/o the colonists consent.

Quartering Act of 1765

required the colonists to provide quarters and supplies for the British troops in America

Townshend Duties

levied new taxes on various goods imported to the colonies from England—lead, paint, paper, and tea

Internal and external taxation

their purpose was to raise revenue from the colonists w/o their consent

Boston Massacre

a crowd of dockworkers began pelting the sentries at the customs house with rocks and snowballs. The British Regiment lined up several of their men in front of the building to protect it. One soldier was knocked down and 5 bystanders were killed. This quickly became blown out of proportion and became known as a massacre.

Gaspee Affair

angry residents of Rhode Island boarded this British ship, set it afire, and sank it in the Narragansett Bay. The angry British, instead of putting the accused attackers on trial in colonial courts, sent a special commission to America with power to send the defendants back to England for trial.

Tea Act of 1773

gave Britain's East India Company the right to export its merchandise directly to the colonies w/o paying any of the navigation taxes that were imposed on the colonial merchants. The company could undersell American merchants and monopolize the colonial sea trade.

Women in resistance activities

women led efforts to boycott tea after Tea Act happened, wrote anti-British pieces of literature, and created daughters of liberty to protest British actions.

Boston Tea Party

men, masquerading as Mohawks, passed through a tremendous crowd of spectators, went aboard 3 ships, broke open the tea chests & heaved them into the harbor. Other sea ports soon followed example but soon Parliament closed the port of Boston, drastically reduced the powers of self-gov in the city and other things as well.

Coercive Act (Intolerable Acts)

far from isolating Massachusetts, made it a martyr to residents of other colonies and sparked new resistance up and down the coast

Quebec Act

it was to provide a civil government for the French-speaking Roman Catholic inhabitants of Canada & the Illinois country. It extended the boundaries of Quebec to include the French communities between Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers. It also granted political rights to Roman Catholics and recognized the legality of the Roman Catholic Church within the enlarged province.

First Continental Congress

They made 5 major decisions. They rejected a plan for a colonial union under British authority, they endorsed a statement of grievances, they approved a series of resolutions that a Suffolk County had passed, they agreed to nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption as means of stopping all trade with Great Britain, and finally they agreed to meet again the next spring.

Suffolk Resolve

was drafted by representatives of Boston area and approved by first continental congress; more radical statements in response to coercive acts; claimed they were no longer subject to British rule because they had been violated.

Representation; virtual vs. direct

(Virtual); was the British argument that the American colonies were represented in parliament, since the members of parliament represented all Englishmen in the empire. (Direct); a system of choosing delegates to a representative assembly in which citizens vote directly for the delegates who will represent them

Nature of sovereignty

Americans believed that powers should be divided between leading governing force and smaller forces while the British believed that all governing power should be under one single leader and the parliament.

General Braddock

the newly appointed commander in chief of the British Army in America during the French and Indian War. However, he failed miserably in a major effort to retake the crucial site at the forks of the Ohio River and he was eventually killed there.

William Pitt

English Sec. of State and later on Prime Minister. He wanted to transfer the war efforts in America by bringing it for the first time under British control.

Battle of Quebec

the fall of this city on Sept. 13, 1759, marked the beginning of the end of the American phase of the war. A year later, in Sept 1760, the French army formally surrendered to Amherst in Montreal.

Peace of Paris, 1763

under its terms, the French ceded to GB some of their West Indian islands and most of their colonies in India. They also transferred Canada and all other French territory east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans, to GB. They ceded New Orleans and their claims west of the Mississippi to Spain, thus surrendering all title to the mainland of North America.

Proclamation of 1763

forbade settlers to advance beyond a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains.

Sugar Act (1764)

designed in part to eliminate the illegal sugar trade between the continental colonies and the French and Spanish West Indies, raised the duty on sugar and also established new vice-admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers—thus depriving them of the benefit of sympathetic local juries.

Taxation: "Virtual and Direct"

(direct); taxes levied either on the basis of earned income or wealth. (virtual); a tax paid indirectly

Samuel Adams

he was the leading figure in fomenting public outrage over the Boston Massacre, and one of the most effective radicals in the colonies. He spoke frequently at Boston town meetings and gained a lot of support.

Committee of Correspondence

created by Samuel Adams in Massachusetts. It would publicize the grievances against England throughout the colony. Many other colonies soon followed Massachusetts's lead, and there grew up a loose network of political organizations that kept the spirit of dissent alivr through the 1770s.

John Locke

was an English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people. He also said that people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Congregationalism

was set up by the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was a church system in which each local church served as the center of its own community. This structure stood in contrast to the church of England, in which the single state church held sway over all local churches.

Patriarchy

a form of social organization in which the father rules the family

Covenant

binds all residents together in a religious and social commitment to unity and harmony.

Harvard

the 1st American college. It was established in 1636 by the General Court of Massachusetts at the behest of Puritan theologians.

William and Mary

established in Williamsburg, Virginia in 1693. Like Harvard, it was conceived as an academy to train clergymen.

Town meetings

They would decide important questions and choose a group of "selectmen" who governed until the next meeting. Only adult males were permitted to participate.

The Great Awakening

began in the 1730s and reached its climax in the 40s. It brought a new spirit of religious fervor that many American's believed was reversing the trend away from piety. It especially appealed to women and people of lower status. John Edwards plays a major part in this religious revival.

Patroonships

they were vast estates along the Hudson River established by the Dutch. They had difficulty attracting peasant labor, and most were not successful.

Visible saints

residents who could give evidence of grace

Scotch-Irish

they believed that "it was against the laws of god and nature to that so much land should be idle while so many Christians wanted it to labor on and to raise bread."

Dutch

many Germans made their way into PA to keep out of reach of the patroons. They became known as the what? and the Quaker colony became a popular place for Germans to settle.

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