According to Bossuet, how does God rule on earth?
God rules through the kings, who are his ministers on earth. The royal throne is the throne of God.
A political theory holding that all power should be vested in one ruler or other authority
List the accomplisments of Louis XIII's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu
Strengthened power of the king by taking political and military power away from the Huguenots; setting up spy network to control the nobles; crushing conspiracies.
List the accomplishments of Louis XIV's chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin.
Controlled the country during Louis' childhood; crushed revolt of nobles; under his influence people accepted that having a powerful king was better than chaos.
Why was Louis called the "Sun King"?
Source of light for all his people.
Name three important purposes of the royal court at Versailles.
Household of king; main offices of state were located there; powerful subject came to find favor there and many were literally "imprisoned" there.
What was Louis' main purpose in enticing the nobles to Versailles?
The three areas of royal power Louis had absolute control over.
Foreign Policy; The Church; Taxation
What was Louis' religious policy?
He maintained control over the church and suppressed the Huguenots, aiming to either convert them to Catholicism, or by closing their churches and schools, which led to many of them fleeing France.
Why was the life of the king ritualized at Versailles?
The many court rituals around the king's daily life contributed glorified the power of the king..
What were Jean-Baptiste Colbert's contributions to the rising prosperity of France?
Fostered mercantilism; encouraged exports and discouraged imports; raise tariffs on imported goods; built roads, canals, and a merchant marine.
The two important legacies of Louis XIV
Debt and War
Why did Frederick William of Prussia build a large and efficient army?
Prussia was a small, open, territory with no natural borders to protect it from invaders.
Prussian General War Commisariat
Levied taxes for the army and oversaw its growth
How did the Austrian Hapsburgs recover after losing the Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia?
They created a new empire in Eastern Europe after defeating the Turks at Vienna in 1687.
In what way does the Austrian Empire differ from the absolutist monarchies of the time?
It was made up of too many nationalities to become a centralized single state.
What is the name of the Russian State out of which the Russian Empire emerged?
The Principality of Moscow.
What were the accomplishments of Ivan the Terrible?
In 16th century, Ivan expanded the territory of Russian tremendously; took title of Czar; crushed the Boyars (nobles)
(Romanov Dynasty: 1613-1917)- period in Russia after the Ivans; starts with Michael Romanov (boyars and representatives came together and chose him in 1613) this period dramatically transformed the fate of Russia
Peter the Great
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
Built to attract Europeans and provide for Russia a warm water ports. It looked to the West. Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden.
What lead to a decline in worldly enthusiasm in Italy in the 1520s and 30s?
People became anxious and uncertain as a result of religious and political turmoil.
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted figures and compression of space.
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
Why was the Baroque style favored by the Catholic Church and Catholic courts?
Baroque style is flamboyant, confident, and triumphalist; it arouses emotions; it reflects the period's search for power.
Why was Bernini's "Throne of St. Peter" an important religious and political statement?
It was symbolic of the power of the Popes who sat in Peter's "Chair".
Why is it said that theatre expresses the energy of England's Elizabethan era?
It was a time of growing democracy, nationalism, and self-confidence. Theatre was available to all and the high quality of the work of Shakespeare indicates that the common people were capable of understanding sophisticated work.
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
What tension in the Spanish character does Cervantes express in Don Quixote?
The Visionary versus the Realist
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
What historical events formed Hobbes' political views?
The execution of Charles I by the Roundheads and the chaos of the English Civil War
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Which political tendency in English history does Locke represent?
Locke represents the growing power of the people, represented by Parliament, at the expense of the king.
How did Locke inspire the American Colonists?
Locke believed that when a government does not function in the interests of the people that have a right and obligation to overthrow that government.
How is Locke related to the English Glorious Revolution of 1688?
Parliament deposed the Catholic James II and invited the Protestant William and Mary to invade England and replace him. This was viewed as being in the best interests of the people and lead to the understanding that kings rule by grace of Parliament, not by grace of God.