A & P Test #3

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Most bones formed by intramembranous ossification are the long, short, and irregular bones. T or F

False

Intramembranous ossification

Cranial/flat bones

Cranial bones develop _______

within fibrous membranes (membrane model)

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

Hyaline cartilage

Epiphysis usually remain cartilage through birth. Ossification of these epiphyses________

is produced by secondary ossification centers

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following in necessary?

an ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue

Steps of intramembranous ossification:

1. Oss. centers appear
2. Osteoblasts secrete osteoid, then calcifies
3. Woven bone and periosteum form
4. Lamellar bone replaces woven bone

The process of bones increasing WIDTH is ______

Appositional growth

The process of bones increasing LENGTH is _______

Interstitial growth

Bone remodeling is similar to _____

Appositional growth

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells acomplishes this process?

Osteoclasts

During prenatal development, most bones beneath the skull form by a process known as ________

Endochondral ossification

Which of the following is NOT a step in intramembranous ossification?

Destroy and remove old cartilage

_____begins around week 8 of development and continues until a person stops growing?

Endochondral ossification

Growth in the length of long bones during infancy and youth is through ___

Interstitial growth (longitudinal) of the epiphysial plates

On average, longitudinal bone growth ends at 21 in males and 18 in females. T or F

True

Which of the following concerning bone remodeling is not true?

All true! (most adult bone changes, occurs between periosteum and bone, occurs between endosteum and bone, occurs in osteogenic layer)

Periosteal bud

12th week of endochondral ossification, cavity consisting on nutrient artery/vein, nerve fibers, red marrow, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts

Stages of a healing bone fracture:

1. Hematoma
2. Fibro. cartilage callus formation
3. Bony callus
4. Bone remodeling

The ammount of movement permitted in a particular joint is the basis for the structural classification of joints. T or F

False - Functional classificaion

Amphiarthroses

Articulations permitting slight degrees of movement

Synarthroses

Articulations permitting no movement

Diarthroses

Articulations permitting all movement

Gomphosis

A fibrous joint that is a peg in socket joint

On the basis of structural classification, which joint type below is d.f.c.t?

Syndesmosis (sheets)

Synchondroses

Cartilaginous joints

Hinge joints permit movement in two planes. T or F

False - move in one plane

Which is true about synovial fluid in joints?

It contains hyaluronic acid

Multiaxial joints of the body include:

Hip and shoulder

Bursae

Conn. tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops

Origin

Attatched to the immovable or less movable bone

Insertion

Attatched to the more movable bone

During contraction, a skeletal muscle insertion usually moves toward the origin. T or F

True

Antagonist

Muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover

Which connective tissue sheath surrounds fascicles?

Perimysium

Order of conn. tissue on muscles:

Muscle fiber - endomysium - fascicles - perimysium - bundles - epimysium

Aponeurosis

a sheetlike indirect attatchment to a skeletal element

What serve as a trigger for muscle contraction by binding to troponin to remove tropymyosin off binding sites?

Calcium ions, Ca2+

Troponin

Unblocks Ca2+

Tropomyosin

Blocks site

What diffuses across the membrane, binds to receptors associated with chemically gated ion channels, untimately resulting in local depolarization of membrane?

Acytylcholine

The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in mm contraction is ____

To regulate intracellular calcium concentration

Function of T tubules

to allow the AP deep into the fiber

A sarcomere is the distance between two _____

Z Discs

The thicker filaments are the ____filaments

Myosin

The ____contains only the actin filaments

I Band

Both actin and myosin are found in the ____

A Band

The myosin filaments are located in the ____

A Band

Sequence for mm contraction:

motor neuron AP - neurotrans release - mm cell AP - release of Ca+ from SR - ATP driven power stroke - sliding myofilaments

The sliding filament model of contraction involves_____

Actin and myosin sliding past eachother and partially overlapping

Rigor mortis occurs because

no ATP is availible to release attatched actin and myosis molecules

What prevents ACh in the synaptic cleft from continuing to stimulate contraction?

Acetylcholinesterase destroying the ACh

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