exam 3 intro exercise science

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intro exercise science HSES 269 KU

risk factors associated with nutritional intake

Hypertension
Sodium and alcohol consumption
Osteoporosis
Calcium intake
Breast and colon cancer
Fat consumption
Alcohol consumption (breast cancer)
Obesity
Excess fat consumption

basics of nutritional intake and performance

Carb loading
Maximizes intramolecular and liver glycogen
Eating/drinking during prolonged exercise
Spares muscle glycogen
Maintains blood glucose
Prevents dehydration
Prevents fatigue
Protein consumption
Resistance exercise
Maximized lean mass development

main findings of the early research with nutrition

the increased iron consumption would improve anemia (low iron) and that citrus fruit could cure scurvy (lack of vitamin C creates; inability to produce collagen).
Also, on dogs, it was shown a diet high in fat and carbohydrates led to muscle wasting and death. Shows the necessity of protein in dogs.

affects athletic performance and the different somatotypes

Ectomorph long tall
Endomorph small and fat
Mesomorph looks like TO

caloric amounts associated with the micronutrients

Nutrients required in large quantities
Protein
Carbohydrates
Fats
CHO, fat and protein differ in the amount of energy available for release
CHO, protein = 4 cal/g
alcohol= 7cal/g
Fat = 9 cal/g
Ex. If a cookie has 10g of CHO and 2g of fat, the cookie has 58 calories
Calories from CHO + Calories from fat
(10g x 4 cal per g) + (2g x 9 cal per g)

why we need glucose (specifically for the brain and nerves)

Brain and CNS rely on blood glucose
Symptoms of low glucose (blood sugar)
Drowsiness, irritable, shakiness
Stored as glycogen
Liver glycogen breaks down into glucose & released into blood stream following a meal or exercise and symptoms subside

difference between type 1 and 2 diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes is a disorder in which the body does not produce insulin
Type 2 Diabetes occurs when insulin that the body produces is less efficient at moving sugar out of the bloodstream

difference between cholesterol and saturated and unsaturated fats

Saturated
Every carbon on the fatty acid chain has at least two hydrogens

Unsaturated
There is at least one double bond in the fatty acid chain

how many amino acids there are and the difference between essential and
non-essential

There are 20 different amino acids (organic compounds from which proteins are made) that make up all proteins in the human body. These amino acids are needed to replenish tissue, red blood cells, enzymes, and other substances. Of these 20 amino acids, 9 to 12 can be manufactured by the body (estimates vary). They are called nonessential amino acids because they need not be obtained from the diet. The remaining 8 to 11, called the essential amino acids, cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from the diet.

Meat contains all the essential amino acids and is considered a "complete protein." Vegetables, with the exception of soybeans, are "incomplete proteins" in that they do not contain every essential amino acid. By combining certain foods that are, individually, incomplete proteins, it is possible to achieve the...

fat soluble and water soluble vitamins

Both fat soluble (A, D, E and K) and water soluble (C, the B's)
Fat soluble means that they can last for years before deficiency is a problem
Overloading of these may be toxic
Water soluble means they must be consumed regularly
Many work with proteins to help enzymes function correctly

problem with too much vitamin or mineral intake

22 mostly metallic elements
Used for hormones, enzyme activity and creation of vitamins
Major minerals are those which are in large quantities with known function
Iron in hemoglobin
Trace minerals are in very small quantities
Excess may be harmful
Flintstones vitamins

importance of hydration and which type to drink and when

Don't wait until you're thirsty!
We become thirsty when we lose 1% of water due to fluid loss
BUT exercise blunts the sensation of thirst
Can become 2-3% dehydrated before feeling thirsty
Weight loss of over 3% may impair exercise tolerance
Any losses may impair exercise performance

Repeated dehydration of 5% or more can increase risk of heat exhaustion
50-60% of fluids lost during exercise can be replenished during exercise
Sweat faster than the gut can absorb water
Must intake fluid BEFORE exercise
Determine fluid needs by weighing before and after a workout
Drink 2 cups fluid per one pound loss
Avoid caffeine

different types of body composition testing

Photo Absorptiometry
Densiometry
Bioelectrical Impedance

main aspects of how a curveball curves and why the Fosbury flop is the
most efficient jump

The Seam
Pitcher uses seam, in addition to arm rotation, to put more spin on ball, causing it to "curve"
2 curvatures:
1 from force causing ball to spin
Gravity alters speed and causes other curve

Works by making the center of gravity as low as possible
Can even make center of gravity outside the body??

how surface area affects resistance through a fluid

Density
The distribution of mass throughout a volume of space
Resistance in water is greater than resistance in air...WHY?
Viscosity
Fluid's resistance to flow
Higher viscosity = higher resistance
Temperature changes viscosity
Denser, more viscous fluids have higher resistance to flow

how ground reaction forces are utilized for movement

The force exerted by you onto the ground
Affects vertical, anteroposterior, and mediolateral motion of the object (you)

main ideas behind friction and how it can be lowered or raised based on
equipment

Force that opposes sliding between two objects
Maximum limiting friction (MLF)
Point beyond which friction cannot increase
If propelling force is greater than the MLF, slidding occurs
Normal force
Acts perpendicular to the two surfaces and squeezes/compresses the two together
Increasing normal force increases friction
Many injuries are caused by too much or too little friction

Newton's Second Law
Law of Acceleration
The amount of acceleration of a system is dependent on how much net external for is applied and the resistance to movement changed (inertia).
F=m a & a = F / m
A is directly proportional to F
A is inversely proportional to m

the main reasoning behind resultant vectors

An objects final velocity depends upon force application - there is always a vertical and horizontal component - the resultant velocity is the summation of vertical and horizontal components

the equations for speed, velocity and acceleration

Speed = D / T
Velocity is speed in a particular Direction
Position (distance)2-Position1
Time2- Time1

a = (V2- V1)/ΔT

Where: a = acceleration
Vf = final velocity
Vi = initial velocity
ΔT = change in time

the difference between kinetics and kinematics

Kinematics-temporal and spatial components of movement
Easy to understand and apply (relies on observations)
You've probably used it before, but didn't know it
Speed, velocity, acceleration
Kinetics- Study of forces, force production, or forces acting on an object
More physics
Requires more equipment and specialized training to measure and study
Forces associated with movement

the reference body movements (flexion and extension, etc.)

Flexion / Extension
Hyperextension
Abduction / Adduction: the distal segment moves towards the midline of the body
lateral flexion- used for neck or trunk movements
Inversion / Eversion- used for foot movements
External rotation (lateral rotation)
Internal rotation (medial rotation)
Supination / Pronation
Axial rotation- turning neck

the classes of levers

1st class-fulrum in the middle
2nd class-load in the middle
3rd class-effort in the middle

the planes are their associated axis

Sagittal
Splits body into right and left sides
Frontal
Splits body into anterior and posterior
(coronal)
Transverse
Splits body into superior and inferior

the important names and history

Aristotle- General descriptions of animal motion
Archimedes- Hydrodynamics (understanding why and how to swim)
Leonardo da Vinci - First to scientifically study human joint motions and gait
Alfonso Borelli - "Father of Biomechanics" The body is composed of levers (bones) and movement is caused by muscles
Muybridge- began using measurement tools to study kinematics

Newton's Second Law

Law of Acceleration
The amount of acceleration of a system is dependent on how much net external for is applied and the resistance to movement changed (inertia).
F=m a & a = F / m
A is directly proportional to F
A is inversely proportional to m

important names and theories as well as the major concepts and aspects
(for example, Eyesenck and the three dimensions, etc.)

First study related to exercise was by Conrad Reiger (1884)
Detailed that hypnotic catalepsy enhanced muscular endurance

Norman Triplett
Did competition affect performance?
Yes, social factors led to increased motivation that was not seen in individual performance

Coleman Griffith's
"Father of North American Sport Psychology"
The first practicing sport psychologist
Researched participation in football and basketball
Wrote classic textbooks in the psychology of coaching and the psychology of athletics
Hired by Cubs to help performance (it didn't and they are still horrible)

Eysenck
Three dimensions
Extroversion-introversion
Neuroticism-stability
Psychoticism-superego

differences between state and trait anxiety

Trait anxiety- A personality feature whereby someone demonstrates high levels of anxiety at all times.
A nervous or anxious person
State anxiety- a measure of how anxious a person feels at a particular time.
Two seconds left and the game depends upon a successful free throw.
Optimal performance depends upon ability to relax and re-establish the optimal arousal

general exercise is associated with certain characteristics and how it
affects anxiety and depression

Acute and chronic exercises influence mood and emotion
Exercise can also improve mental health
Lower anxiety and depression and increasing well-being

Reduces levels regardless of age, gender, etc...
However, there is a general prescription
Intensity should be 30% HRmax
Exercise duration should be above 30min
Longer programs have a greater effect than shorter programs (6 months vs 3 months)

General emotional dejection and withdrawal"
Treated with prescription or therapy
Also use exercise
Both anaerobic and aerobic have been beneficial
Larger effects with programs over 9 weeks
Not dependent of fitness level

factors that affect arousal and the associated theories and graphs

If stressor is seen as a threat, levels of anxiousness increase
Not beneficial
If stressor is seen as a challenge, stress may be beneficial and anxiousness decreases
Can be seen physiologically and biochemically
HR, cortisol (the stress hormone), epinephrine, etc.
We have two theories that look at arousal and performance

effects of attention on performance

Very difficult to study
May be arousal based
No uniform way to study it
When arousal goes from low to moderate, generally an increase in performance
However, when attention goes to high focus is too narrow and may miss important environmental factors

possible mechanisms of why exercise seems to help with anxiety and
depression

Increased cerebral blood flow
Changes in neurotransmitters
Increased oxygen delivery
Reduction in muscle tension
Structural brain changes
Increased self-efficacy and feelings of control
Positive social interaction
Opportunities for fun and enjoyment

psychophysiology of the body and how that may help a target shooter
as well as the differences between types of imagery practice

How the mind affects the functioning of the body.
How the physiology affects the mind (perception, thought, and pain)

Biofeedback- monitor brain patterns in order to help the individual control them.
Or help marksmen to recognize the optimal time to shoot.
May measure EMG or EEG activity

when it is less likely to relapse for exercise adherence

Only 5% of people who intend to lose weight succeed in maintaining weight loss








Relapse is less likely after maintenance phase is reached.

differences between anorexia, bulimia, muscle dysmorphia as well as
the Female Athletic Triad

Disordered Eating
(Anorexia Bulimia)

Menstrual dysfunction
(Delayed menarche Absence of menstrual cycle)

Osteoporosis
(increased risk of stress fractures Low bone density)

major components, names, theories of motor behavior

Claudius Galen
Suggested that muscle contractions were caused by fluid in the nerves getting passed to the muscles, causing them to swell
Called the "hydraulic system"
Dominant theory from late 100AD-mid 1700's
Luigi Galvani proposed a concept of bioelectricity
Using a frog, he applied an electrical stimulus to a nerve, which caused a contraction
Thought that tissues generated electricity
This neurophysiology provided the foundation of motor learning and control

In 1902, the publishing of Le Mouvement, by R.S. Woodworth
Established the field of motor skills research
In the 1920's, the law of effect was produced
This states that those stimuli producing something pleasant are more likely to be repeated

Franklin Henry
"Father of Motor Skills Research"
Created the memory drum theory
States that skills are memorized and stored as nerve patterns
Stored in the higher centers of the CNS, called the "memory drum"

the different age groups of development, and know the main points for the
older adulthood section

Broken up into stages
Allows for separation of skills (i.e. for study)
Prenatal
Infancy
Early/later Childhood
Adolescence
Adulthood
Older adulthood


Processing through adulthood increases chance of age-related problems
Decrease in performance, physiological capabilities and cardiopulmonary function
Decreases in those start around 40, but significant losses starting at 50
Genetic factors, nutrition, exercise level and frequency can affect this
Even older people can benefit to new skill acquisition

different types of psycho-motor memory

The ability to integrate cognition with motor abilities
Two types
Fluid
The ability to reason and perform abstract thought
Measure of brain-state because you can still make new connections
Crystal
The ability to store information in the brain

the components of reaction time

...

the differences between types of feedbacks

Quantitative feedback most helpful
The more complex the task the greater the need for feedback.
Quantity and Quality of feedback can become overwhelming
Summary feedback is appropriate once a certain skill level is reached.
Ex. Results shown after 20 trials


Bandwidth Feedback
Only give feedback when error is great
Ex. Early in the learning process-more errors = more feedback
When the performer does something right ask them to recall how that felt.
Brings attention to their own proprioceptive feedback

differences between part and whole practice and when you'd apply
them

Teach complex motor movements
More components of the skill
Clean and jerk
Teach initial pull phase, then clean, then jerk
Skills that are not complex you want to practice as a whole
Difficult skills
Practice performance decreases as skills get harder
There is also a limit to learning

what the challenge point is and how it can be altered and how this affects
performance

During a difficult task, there is a point where learning is optimal, although performance may not be
Being optimally challenged
If you go past this point (adding a new element) practice goes down as well as learning

informational processing

Information processing
Detect nature of information from sensory stimuli
Integrate information with stored memory
Select instructions for the appropriate movement
Execute movement by activating proper muscles at the proper time

difference between closed and open skills

Open Skill - stable environment
Closed Skill - changing environment

the basics of plateau-ing

Plateaus- period of no improvement
Reminiscence- improvement seen after a period of rest
Physical or mental fatigue
Inhibits learning/performance improvements
Reactive inhibition- tendency for motivation to decrease over time
As a result of boredom or poor performance
Either way result is plateau

relationship of gross and fine motor skills

Gross Motor Skills
Involve 'large' movements
Dynamic
A lot of muscle mass required to perform movement
Tested by measuring:
Specific sport skills
Power
Aerobic or Anaerobic
Strength
Muscular Endurance

Fine Motor Skills
Involves smaller movements
Precise
Minimal muscle mass required to perform movement
Tested by measuring:
Specific skills that require precise movements & hand eye coordination
Motor learning tests:
Rotary pursuit
Cup Stacking
Balance Stadiometer
'Operation'
Mirror Tracing

two main theories of motor control

Neurons receive information through the joints, proprioceptors and the muscles
Two theories
Closed
Receive information during movement
Muscle activity can be changed during performance to create success
Open
Do not receive information during the movement
Everything is planned before movement happens
Fast to do because you don't have to receive information like in the closed theory

what scaling is and how interventions may affect Parkinson's

Decreased concentration of dopamine
Neurotransmitter in the brain that sends signals for movement
Similar to epinephrine
This causes
Muscle tremors
Muscle rigidity
Inability to initiate movment (akinesia)
Postural instability
Does exercise do anything?

Working Memory

Has unlimited capacity
Storage duration is very short
Used to hold information from the senses
Can hold unlimited amounts of information for 1 second
By using selective attention (actively choosing information) to focus on one thing at a time, you can then send it to the short-term memory

Short Term Memory

Conscious memory
Considered to be from 1-60 seconds
For novices, you must constantly practice because you don't have the long-term storage capacity

Long-Term Storage

If information is deemed important, it moves to long-term storage
Unlimited capacity and storage duration
Can forget something you used to remember
Still have the memory, you just can't retrieve it

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