process by which DNA directs synthesis of proteins
synthesis of RNA under direction of DNA. uses A G C U as bases
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
messenger RNA. carries genetic message from DNA to protein synthesizing material
transfer RNA. transfers amino acids from cytoplasmic pool to ribosomes
ribosomal RNA. constructs ribosomal subunits that tRNA binds to.
synthesis of a polypeptide under the direction of mRNA. occurs in ribosomes
UAA, UAG, UGA
complex particles that facilitate orderly linking of amino acids into peptide chains. located outside of nucleus
enzyme that correctly matches up tRNA to amino acid. 20 of them, one for each amino acid.
stages of transcription
initiation (unwinding of DNA) elongation (polymerase moves downstream and elongates RNA transcript) termination (RNA transcript is released and polymerase detaches)
elongation cycle of translation
(1) codon recognition- tRNA base paris with mRNA in A site--active site. (2) peptide bond formation- peptide bond between amino acid in A site to P site. (3) translocation- ribosome from A site moves to P site with chain of amino acids on top. leaves from E site- exit site when done
requires GTP, initiation factors to bring all components together, elongation factors, and release factors which binds to the stop codon in the A site.
string of ribosomes along mRNA. allows for multiple polypeptide chains to be produced from same strand
bacterial protein synthesis
no nucleus. mRNA produced by transcription is immediately translated
noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lies between coding regions, edited out of the nucleus
coding sements. "expressed" and translated, exits the nucleus
RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme. catalyze their own reactions
changes in genetic information. caused by errors during DNA replication or recombination
chemical changes in a single base pair. example: sickles cell
addition or removal of nucleotide pairs in a gene. causes frameshift mutation.
20 Amino Acids
______ amino acids associated with eukaryotic cells but 64 possible codons.
The genetic code that operates in triplets of bases.
in bacteria; the sequence that signals the end of transcription
The portion of a gene that is transcribed into mRNA and translated into protein.
Stages of Transcription
Initiation, Elongation and Termination
currently has an amino acid to a transfer
On the front end of the transfer, opposite of whats in the message, a nucleotide triplet which base pairs with a complimentary codon on mRNA
20 to 30 codons
Editing begins when the message is ________ codons in length
is the RNA-Directed synthesis of a polypeptide
(A-Site, P-Site & E-Site) Ribosomes
This is the area where mRNA will attach. The larger of the two ribosomal segments has a depression divided into three areas.
Where the transfer begins - amino acid holding
Where the transfer hold peptidyl tRNA
Exit site of all amino acids
Chemical changes in a single base pair of a gene
Will change the protein a person can produce
A section gets knocked out of another
anything that provokes a mutation